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Critical appraisal tools

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The tools listed below will help identify the many ways that error and bias can distort research results.

These tools generally have a core set of questions around 'risk of bias'. Some tools also include other questions to address precision and external validity i.e. generalisability.

The recommended Cochrane risk of bias tools define internal validity as "risk of bias" and consider that to be the key concept when assessing if a study is valid.

Among the collection are a set of checklists that SURE have developed, please note that these have not been externally validated.

The Cochrane Collaboration advocate against the use of scales yielding a summary score.

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