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Prof David Lloyd  -  PhD, DSc

Selected Publications

AJ Hallett, E Placet, R Prieux, A Dervisi, D McCafferty, IA Fallis, RK Allemann, D Lloyd, M Isaccs, AJ Hayes, SJ Coles, MB Pitak, S Marchant, SN Marriott (2014). Exploring the uptake and localisation of amphiphilic, phosphorescent rhenium fac-tricarbonyl complexes in cells for imaging applications. Metabolomics

D Lloyd, IB Lewis, CF Williams, H Symons, EC Hill (2014). Motility of the diplomonad fish parasite, Spironucleus vortens theough thixotropic solid media. Microbiology 

A Pirog, D Lloyd, J Lees, A Porch (2014) Biological effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields: perturbed bacterial bioluminescence shows distinct electrical and magnetic effects. Science

DB Murray, D Lloyd, H Kitano (2014) Frequency modulation of the yeast respiratory cycle indic ates a circadian function

D Lloyd, C F Williams (2014)  Giardia, Spironucleus, and Hexamita: enigmatic diplomonads. Mol Biochem Parasitol.

D Lloyd (2014). The encystment of Acanthamoeba castellanii: a review. Exp. Parasitol.0014-4894/c 2014

D Lloyd (2014). Alfred Russel Wallace: Self-educated genius and polymath. Progress in Botany 76 ed. U. Luttge and W.Beyschlag  ,Springer, Heidelberg

E E Langdon-Jones, N X X Symonds, S Yates, R Williams, A Hayes, D Lloyd, S J Coles, P N Horton, S J A Pope. (2014). Highly fluorescent rhenium complexes as cellular imaging agent models for technetium: controlled localisation through ligand structure. Inorg. Chem.

Lloyd D, CF Williams, M  Kombrabail, K Viayalakshmi, N White, A J Hayes, MA Aon, G Krishnamoorthy,  (2014) Intracellular oxygen: two methods of measurement using phosphorescent nanoparticles. J Innov Opt Health Sci., 7 (2) 1350041(14 pages) DOI: 10.1142/s1793545813500417.

C F Williams; N Yarlett; M A Aon; D Lloyd (2014) Antioxidant defences of Spironucleus vortens: glutathione is the major non-protein thiol. Mol  Biochem Parasitol.

K Aruna & D Lloyd (2014) Loss of the Pasteur Effect in phosphofrucktokinase disruptants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: direct demonstration by Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry. Internat Jour Mod Biotech., 2, 213-220.

MA Aon, D Lloyd & V Saks (2014) From physiology, genomes, systems, and self-organization to systems biology: the historical roots of a 21st century approach to complexity. In: Systems Biology of Metabolic and signaling Networks: Energy, Mass and Information Transfer (eds. MA Aon, V Saks & U Schlattner), pp. 3-17, Springer Series in Biophysics 16, New York.

DB Murray, C Amariei, K Sasidharan, R Machné, MA Aon, D Lloyd (2014) Temporal partitioning of the Yeast cellular network.  In: Systems Biology of Metabolic and signaling Networks: Energy, Mass and Information Transfer (eds. MA Aon, V Saks & U Schlattner), pp.323-349, Springer Series in Biophysics16, New York.    

C F Williams; A J Hayes; A C Hann; J Cable; D Lloyd (2013) Mitochondria-derived organelles in the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus vortens.  Exp Parasitol., 135, 262-273.

C F Williams, J Cable, D Lloyd, B Schelkle, A R Vacca (2013) Non-invasive estimation of Spironucleus vortens in angelfish provides novel insights on the transmission of this diplomonad parasite. Dis Aquat Org., 105, 211-213.

C Amariel, R Machné, K Sasidharan, W Gottstein, M. Tomita T Soga, D Lloyd, D B Murray (2013) The Dynamics of Cellular Energetics during Yeast Continuous Culture. IEEE Eng Med Biol., 2013, 2708-11.

C F Williams, C O M Millet, A J Hayes, J Cable & D Lloyd (2013) Diversity in mitochondria-derived organelles of the parasitic diplomonads Spironucleus and Giardia. Trends Parasitol, 29, 311-312.

D Leitsch, C F Williams, D Lloyd, M Duchêne (2013) Unexpected properties of NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-1) in Trichomonas vaginalis and other microaerophilic parasites. Exp Parasitol 134, 374-380.

CF Williams, D Lloyd, D  Kolarich, K Alagesan, M Duchene, J Cable, D Williams, D Leitsch, (2012) Disrupted intracellular redox balance of the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus vortens by 5-nitroimidazoles and garlic-derived compounds.  Vet Parasitol 190, 63-73.

CF Williams, M  Kombrabail, K Viayalakshmi, N White, G Krishnamoorthy, D Lloyd (2012) Evaluation of two novel methods for assessing intracellular oxygen. Measurement Science and Technology 23 (8) DOI 10.1088/0957-233/23/8/084005.

K. Sasidharan, M. Tomita, MA Aon, D Lloyd, & DB Murray. (2012) Time structure of the Yeast metabolism in vivo. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 736, 359-379.

D Lloyd, MA Aon, S Cortassa & B O’Rourke (2012) What yeast and cardiomyocyes share: ultradian oscillatory redox core mechanisms of cellular coherence and survival. D Lloyd, MA Aon, S Cortassa & B O’Rourke, Integrative Biology 4, 65-74.

CF Williams, D Lloyd, SL Poynton, A Jorgensen, COM Millet, J Cable (2011) Spironucleus species: economically-important fish pathogens and enigmatic single-celled eukaryotes. J Aquacult Res Dev  S2.               

CO Millet , D Lloyd , MP Coogan, J Rumsey, J.Cable (2011) Carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism of Spironucleus vortens.  Exp. Parasitol.129, 17-26.       

BA Stanley, V Sivakumaran , S Shi,  I McDonald, D Lloyd, WH Watson, MA Aon  & N Paolocci. (2011) Thioredoxin reductase 2 is essential for keeping low levels of H2O2  emission from isolated heart mitochondria. J Biol Chem 286, 33669-33677.

CF Williams & D Lloyd (2012) Composition and antimicrobial properties of sulphur-containing constituents of garlic (Allium sativum). CF Williams & D Lloyd  Essential Oils as Natural Food additives: Composition, Applications, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties, Ed. Valgimiglia , Nova Science, New York, pp.287-304.

Fernandez-Moreira, V., Thorp-Greenwood, FL, Millet, CO, Williams, CF, Cable, J, Court, LB, Hayes, AJ, Lloyd, D & Coogan , MP (2011). A 'Sleeping Trojan Horse' transports metal ions into cells, localioses in nucleoli and has potential for bimodal flourescence /PET imaging. Chem. Commun. 21:47(11):3098-8. Epub 2011 Feb 11 DOI: 10.1039/C1CC10141B.

Effect of Garlic and Allium-derived Products on the Growth and Metabolsm of Spironucleus vortens. Millet C.O.M., Lloyd D., Williams C.F., Williams D., Evans G. & Cable J. (2011) Exp. Parassitol. 127 (2) 490-499.

Aon MA, Cortassa S & Lloyd D, Chaos in Biochemistry and Physiology.  In:  SYSTEMS BIOLOGY Meyers, R. (Ed.) John Wiley & Sons,  Weinheim (2011).(Two printed volumes of the online Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine

Cortassa, S, Aon MA, Iglesias AA, AON JC & Lloyd D, An Introduction to Metabolic and Cellular Engineering, Edn, World Scientific, Singapore, (2012), pp.428. 

Probing intracellular oxygen by quenched phosphorescence lifetimes of nanoparticles containing polyacrylamide-embedded [Ru(dpp(SO3Na)2)3]Cl2 (2010) M.P. Coogan, J. B. Court , V.L. Gray, A.H. Hayes, S.H. Lloyd, C.O. Millet , S.J.A. Pope & D. Lloyd (2010) Photochem. Photobiol. Sci . 9, 103-106.

Uptake, localisation, toxicity and stability of rhenium fac-tricarbonyl bisimine pyridine derivatives as fluorophores in cell imaging studies in eukaryote cells . (2010) A.J. Amoroso, J.Cable, M.P. Coogan, J.B. Court, V. Gray, A.J. Hayes, V. Fernandez-Moreira, B.M. Kariuki, D. Lloyd, C.O. Millet, F.L.Thorp-Greenwood and C. F. Williams. Chem. Comm. 8 (17), 3888-3901.

New Luminophores for Biological Imaging (2012) Reviews in Fluorescence 2010 D. Lloyd, M.P. Coogan &  S.J.A. Pope (eds. C. Geddes & J.R. Lakowicz), pp.15-44. Springer, Heidelberg, in press.

Alfred Russel Wallace Deserves Better. Lloyd D., Wimpenny J. & Venables W.A. (2010) J. Biosci. 35 (3), 339-449.
In vitro Culture of the Diplomonad fish parasite, Spironucleus vortens reveals unusually fast doubling time and atypical biphasic growth. Millet C.O.M., Lloyd D., Williams C.F. & Cable J. (2010) J. Fish Diseases 34 (1), 71-73. 

The Diplomonad Fish Parasite, Spironucleus vortens produces Hydrogen. Millet C.O.M., Cable J. & Lloyd D. (2010) J. Euk. Microbiol.  57 (5), 400-404. 

Fernández-Moreira V, Thorp-Greenwood FL , Amoroso AJ, Cable J, Court JB, Gray V, Hayes AJ, Jenkins RL, Kariuki BM,  Lloyd D, Millet CO,  & Williams CF & Coogan MP. Uptake and localisation of rhenium fac-tricarbonyl polypyridyls in fluorescent cell imaging experiments. (2010) Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 8 (17), 3888-91.

The microaerophilic flagellate, Trichomonas vaginalis, contains unusual acyl lipids but no detectable cardiolipin. Guschina IA, Harris KM, Maskrey B, Goldberg B, Lloyd D, Harwood JL. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2009 56(1):52-7.

Multioscillatory behaviour in energetics and NAD(P)H dynamics in yeast. Murray DB , Machne R, Soga T, Amariei C, Lloyd D, Aon MA, Kimura C, Igarashi K, Tomita M. Systems Biol 2009.

The scale-free dynamics of eukaryotic cells.Aon MA, Roussel MR, Cortassa S, O'Rourke B, Murray DB, Beckmann M, Lloyd D. PLoS ONE. 2008 3(11):e3624.

Ultradian Rhythms from Molecules to Mind: a New Vision of Life (2008), D.Lloyd and E.L.Rossi (eds.) pp. x + 450. Springer-Verlag, Berlin,. in press

The living state: a heterarchy of time domains.  D. Lloyd and E.L. Rossi. ibid. pp. 1-8.

The Ultradian Clock (period about 40 min) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae David Lloyd, D.B. Murray, R.R. Klevecz, J. Wolf and H. Kuriyama. ibid. pp. 11-42 (2008).

Self-organized intracellular ultradian (circahoralian) rhythms provide direct cell-cell communication.  V.Y Brodsky and D. Lloyd. ibid. pp. 85-104

Epilogue: A new Vision of life D. Lloyd and E.L. Rossi. ibid. pp. 431-440.

Oscillations, Synchrony and deterministic chaos.  D. Lloyd in Progress in Botony (ed.) V. Lüttge, et al. Vol. 70 pp. 69-91 (2008).

Perspectives: Biological time is fractal: Early events reverberate over a lifetime. D. Lloyd. J.Biosci 33 9-19 (2008).

3-Chloromethylpyridyl bipyridine fac-tricarbon rhenium: a thiol-reactive luminophore for fluorescence microscopy accumulates in mitochondria A.J. Amoroso, R.J. Arthur, M.P. Coogan, J.B. Court, V. Fernandez-Moreira, A.J. Hayes, D. Lloyd, C. Millet and S.J.A. Pope. New Journal of Chemistry 32, 1097-1102 (2008).

The microaerophilic protozoal flagellate, Trichomonas vaginalis contains unusual acyl, lipids but no detectable cardiolipin I.A.Guschina, K.M. Harris, B. Maskrey, B. Goldberg, D. Lloyd, J.L. Harwood (2008) J. Eukaryotic Microbiology.

Peptones from diverse sources, pivotal deteminants of bacterial growth dynamics. V.L.Gray, C.T.Müller, I.D.Watkins, D.Lloyd. J.Appl.Microbiol. 104, 554-564 (2008).

Rhenium fac-tricarbonyl bisimine complexes: biologically useful fluoro-chomes for cell imaging applications. Amoroso A.J., Coogan M.P., Dunne J.E., Fernandez-Moreira, V., Hes, J.B., Hayes, A.J., Lloyd D., Millet C., Pope, S.J.A. and Willimas, C. Chem Commun 3066 – 3068 (2007).

Yeast respiratory oscillations. In: Cellular Oscillatory Mechanisms, (eds. M. Maroto and N.Monk). Landes Bioscience. D.Lloyd (2007).

A tunable attractor underlies yeast cell growth dynamics. Murray D.B., Kitano, H and Lloyd, D. Biosystems. 294, 1011 – 1018 (2007).

Single and cell population respiratory oscillations in yeast: A 2-photon scanning laser microscopystudy. (2007) Aon MA, Lemar, KM, Hayes AJ ,Cortassa S and Lloyd D FEBS Lett 581, 8-14.

H2 Production in the Fish Parasite, Spironucleus vortens Millet CO, Cable J, Lloyd D. Protistology 2007 5 (1):55.

Evolution of eukaryotic Life:Oscillations, Rhythms and Clocks are a Necessity. Lloyd D, Aon MA ,Murray DB ,Cortassa S Protistology 2007 5 (1):51.

Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia intestinalis produce Nitric Oxide: does Nitrosylation Induce Carbohydrate Metabolism ? Harris KM ,Goldberg B, van der Giezen M, Biagini GA, Lloyd D. Protistology 2007 5 (1):36.

Dialyl disulphide depletes glutathione in Candida albicans: oxidative sress mediated cell death studied by 2-photon microscopy. K.M. Lemar, M.A. Aon, S. Rortassa, B. O'Rouke, C.T. Muller and D. Lloyd (2007). Yeast . 24, 698 – 706 (2007).

Redox rhythmicity: clocks at the centre of temporal coherence. D. Lloyd and D.B. Murray. BioEssays 29: 465 – 473 (2007).

Observation of a chaotic multioscillatory metabolic attractor by real-time monitoring of a yeast continuous culture. M.R.Roussel and D.Lloyd. FEBS J 274, 1011-1018 (2007).

Ultradian Rhythms from Molecules to Mind: a New Vision of Life (2008), D.Lloyd and E.L.Rossi (eds.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin, in press.

Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia intestinalis produce nitric oxide and display NO-synthase activity. J. Eukot Microbiol. K.M.Harris, B.Goldberg, G. Biagini and D.Lloyd. 53, 5182-5183 (2006).

Low tyrosine content of growth media yields of aflagellate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. V.L.Gray, M.O’Reilly, C.T.Müller, I.D.Watkins, and D.Lloyd. Microbiology153, 23-28 (2006).

The Bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri: optimal conditions for stability and intensity of photoemission. S.Scheerer, F. Gomez and D.Lloyd. J Microbiol Meth 67. 321-329.

Ultradian rhythms and clocks in plants and yeast. D.Lloyd. Biol Rhythms Res. 37, 281-296 (2006).

Deterministic chaos and rhythms in unicellular organisms. In: Oscillations in Plants (eds. S. Mancuso and S. Shabala), Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Lloyd D.(2006).

The temporal landscape of eukaryotic growth. Lloyd, D. and Murray, D.B. FEBS Lett. 580, 2830-2835 (2006).

Hydrogen sulphide:clandestine microbial messenger. D. Lloyd (2006) Trends Microbiol 14, 456-462.

A bi-functional D 12, D 15 desaturase from Acathamoeba castellanii which syhnthesises highly unusual n-1 series fatty acids. Sayanova, O., Haslam, R., Guschina, I, Lloyd, D , Harwood, J.L. and Napier, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. 36533-34541 (2006).

The ultradian clock: not to be confused with the cell cycle. D. Lloyd (2006 ) Nature Rev. Molec.Cell Biol. 7 (12) DOI: 10.1038/nrm1980-cl.

The effect of temperature on methan dynamics in soil and peat cores:calculations from membrane inlet mass spectrometry. S.K. Sheppard, M. Bekmann, D. Lloyd (2006) Canad J. Soil Sci.

Mass spectrometric monitoring of gas dynamics in peak monoliths: effects of temperature and diurnal cycles on emissions. M.Beckmann, S.K.Sheppard and D.Lloyd. Atmospheric Environ. 38, 6907-6913 (2005).

Allyl alcohol and Garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans. K.M.Lemar, O.Passa, M.A.Aon, S.Cortassa, C.T.Muller, S.Plummer, B.O’Rourke & D.Lloyd. Microbiology151, 2257-3265 (2005).

The impact of sludge amendment on methanogen community structure in an upland soil. S.K.Sheppard, A.M.McCarthy, J.P.Loughnane, N.D.Gray, I.M.Head & D.Lloyd. Appl. Soil. Ecol. 28, 147-162 (2005).

The impact of sludge amendment on gas dynamics in an upland soil: monitored by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. S.K.Sheppard, N.Gray, I.M.Head & D.Lloyd. Bioresource Technol. 96, 1103-1115 (2005).

Systems dynamics of biology. D.Lloyd. J. Appl. Biomed. 3, 1-12 (2005).

Ultradian metronome: timekeeper for orchestration of cellular coherence. D. Lloyd & D.B.Murray Trends Biochem. Sci. 30, 373-377 (2005).

Ultradian clock timekeeping: periodic quasiperiodic and chaotic outputs. D.Lloyd, A.L.Lloyd, L.F.Olsen, M.Stolyarov, E.I.Volkov & D.B.Murray. WSEAS Trans. Biol. Biomed. 1, 390-394 (2004).

Pooley DT, Larsson J, Jones G, Rayner-Brandes MH, Lloyd D, Gibson C, Stewart WR. Continuous culture of photobacterium. Biosens Bioelectron. Jun 15;19(11):1457-63. (2004).

D. Lloyd 'Anaerobic protists': some misconceptions and confusions. Microbiology ; 150: 1115-1116. (2004).

D. Lloyd, J. C. Harris, G. A. Biagini, M. R. Hughes, S. Maroulis, C. Bernard, R. B. Wadley and M. R. Edwards The plasma membrane of microaerophilic protists: oxidative and nitrosative stress. Microbiology ; 150: 1183-1190. (2004).

T. Paget, S. Maroulis, A. Mitchell, M. R. Edwards, E. L. Jarroll and D. Lloyd. Menadione kills trophozoites and cysts of Giardia intestinalis. Microbiology ; 150: 1231-1236. (2004).

N. Turner, D. Russell, J. Furr and D. Lloyd. Resistance, biguanide sorption and biguanide pentose leakage during encystment of Acanthamoeba castellanii. J. Appl. Micro. 96, 1287-1295. (2004).

Generation and maintenance of synchrony in S. cerevisiae. D. B. Murray, R.R. Klevecz & D. Lloyd. Exptl. Cell Res. 287, 10-15 (2003).

Respiratory oscillations in yeast: mitochondrial reative oxygen species, apoptosis and time: a hypothesis. D. Lloyd, K.M. Lemar, E.J. Salgado, T.M. Gould & D.B. Murray FEMS Yeast Res 3, 333-339 (2003).

Biological effects of millimeter-wave radiation: A high-throughput screening system. D. Pooley, C. Gibson, W.R. Stewart, J. Magee, E. Ellison & D. Lloyd. Review of Scientific Instruments, 74, 1296-1302 (2003).

Bacterial-like energy metabolism in the primitive protozoon Hexamita inflata G.A. Biagini, N. Yarlett, G. Ball, A.C. Billetz, D.G. Lindmark, M.P. Martinez, D. Lloyd &, M.R. Edwards. Mol Biochem Parasitol 128, 11-19 (2003).

The GST1 protein stabilizes the autonomous oscillation in yeast. C.A. Adams, H. Kuriyama, D. Lloyd & D. B. Murray. Yeast 20, 463-470 (2003).

An overview of cell death mechanisms in the human opportunistic pathogen, Candidaalbicans. K.M.Lemar, C.Müller, S. Plummer & D. Lloyd. J. Eukaryotic Microbiol.50, 685-686 (2003).

Oxygen Homeodynamics in Giardia. In: "Giardia a Cosmopolitan Organism" ed. B. E. Olson, M. E. Olsen & P. Wallis, CAB International (2002).

An Introduction to Metabolic and Cellular Engineering, (S Cortassa, M A Aon, A A Iglesias & D Lloyd). World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore (2002).

An Introduction to Metabolic and Cellular Engineering, (S. Cortassa, M.A. Aon, A.A. Inglesias, D. Lloyd). World Scientific, Singapore (2002).

Cycles of mitochondrial energization driven by the ultradian clock in a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. D. Lloyd, L. E. J. Salgado, M. P. Turner, M. T. E. Suller and D. Murray. Microbiology. 148 3715-3724 (2002).

Diurnal oscillations in gas production (O2 CO2 CH4 and N2) in soil monoliths. S.K.Sheppard and D. Lloyd. Biol Rhythm Research. 33, 577-591 (2002).

 Oxygen Homeodynamics in Giardia. In: "Giardia a Cosmopolitan Organism" ed. B. E. Olson, M. E. Olsen & P. Wallis, CAB International (2002).

Non-invasive methods and the investigation of organisms at low O2 levels. D. Lloyd. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 51, 155-183 (2002).

Giardia: highly evolved parasitic or early-branching eukaryote. D. Lloyd & J.C.Harris. Trends in Microbiology 10, 122-127 (2002).

Current trends in research into the waterborne parasite, Giardia. S. Lane & D. Lloyd. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 28, 123-147, (2002).

Recent advances in treatment of amoebal eye infections. R.Kumar & D. Lloyd. Infect. Clinical Disease 35, 434-441 (2002).

Boiling muds and scalding soils: new species and enzymes for the future. D. Lloyd Microbiology Today 29, 64-66 (2002).

Biogenic controls on trace gas fluxes in Northern Wetlands. T.Christiansen, D. Lloyd et al. IGBP Global Change Newsletter 51, 16, 9-15 (2002).

Factors affecting the activity of enzymes involved in peptide and amino acid catabolism in non-starter lactic acid bacteria isolated for Cheddar cheese. A.G.Williams, J. Noble, J. Tammam, D. Lloyd and J. M.Banks. Intl. Dairy Journal 12, 841-852 (2002).

Respiratory oscillations in yeast: clock driven mitochondrial cycles of energization. D. Lloyd, L. E. Salgado, M. P. Turner & D. B. Murray FEBS Lett 519, 41-44 (2002).

Garlic (Allium sativum) as an anti-Candida agent a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. L. K. Lemar, M. P. Turner & D. Lloyd. J. Appl. Microbiol. 93, 398-405 (2002).

Antimicrobial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) J. C. Harris, S. L. Cottrell, S. Plummer & D. Lloyd. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 57, 282-286 (2001).

Antigiardial drugs. J. C. Harris, S. Plummer & D. Lloyd. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 57, 614-619 (2001).

Why homeodynamics, not homeostasis? D. Lloyd, M. Aon & S. Cortassa. The Scientific World, 1, 133-145 (2001).

From bright field microscopy to fluorescence methods and confocal microscopy. D. Lloyd and G. Dinsdale. In: Brewing yeast fermentation performance, (Ed. K. Smart), pp.3-9. Blackwell Oxford, (2000).

Encystation in Acanthamoeba castellanii: Development of biocide resistance. D. Lloyd, N. A. Turner, W. Khunkitti, A. C. Hann, J. R. Furr and A. D. Russell. J. Euk. Microbiol. 48, 11-16, (2000).

Microbial differentiation and changes in susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. N. A. Turner, J. C. Harris, A. D. Russell & D. Lloyd. J. Appl. Microbiol. 89, 751-759, (2000).

How to avoid oxygen. D. Lloyd. Science, 286, 249 (1999).