Electric Vehicle Centre of Excellence
We bring together experts from across Cardiff University to investigate and help address the remaining barriers to the widespread introduction of electric vehicles.
The Electric Vehicle Centre of Excellence (EVCE) at Cardiff University is a multi-disciplinary centre that is unique in academic electric vehicle (EV) research teams.
The EVCE offers a multi-disciplinary collective approach to understanding the impact of electrification on the future of mobility and the future of the industry. The EVCE addresses this complex challenge by conducting fundamental research, working with industry and other stakeholders.
We work on key transformative issues such as vehicle autonomous control, wireless charging of electric vehicles (dynamic charging on the road), user and traveller behaviours, and the modelling of transport systems, smart grids, energy demand scenarios for EVs, regulatory options, and consumer barriers and incentives. The EVCE demonstrates the strength, quality, and commitment of collaborative research within the area of sustainable transport at Cardiff University.
EVCE brings together experts from Cardiff University School of Engineering, Cardiff Business School’s Centre for Automotive Industry Research (CAIR), School of Computer Science and Informatics, School of Geography and Planning, and the School of Psychology to investigate and help address the remaining barriers to the widespread introduction of electric vehicles.
The centre has 10 core members and more than 20 associated members with a large network of researchers and PhD students. The members of the centre already received more than £20M for projects covering the electric vehicles research area, charging infrastructure, battery recycle, autonomous vehicles, analysis of the economic and business model innovation of future automobility and £8M for projects covering Smart Grids area.
Read about our work in this report from the National Centre for Universities and Business that showcases how collaborations between our universities and businesses are helping to meet COP26’s ambitious goals.
The barriers preventing the widespread introduction of electric vehicles are often not just technological ones, but can be due to regulations, user or potential user attitudes.
There are also potential barriers due to the new relationships along the value chain that these new technologies bring with them. These include the transition needed within the existing automotive supply chain. The future of existing suppliers less secure (e.g. valves, pistons, camshafts), while new suppliers are not necessarily used to working with automotive clients (batteries, traction motors, ICT). But they also go beyond the conventional automotive supply chain where links with energy suppliers are now increasingly valued, while the move towards connected and autonomous vehicles also creates the need for new relationships and partnerships.
All three participating Schools have a track record in various aspects of the EV value chain, including areas such as smart grids, energy demand scenarios for EVs, regulatory options and incentives, consumer barriers and incentives.
All three Schools are among the top ranking in their disciplines in the UK, the Schools of Psychology and Business in the top ten, while in global rankings, the Business School was recently ranked within the top 100 and the School of Psychology in the top 40.
Marmaras, E. Xydas, L. Cipcigan, O. Rana, F. Klugl , Electric Vehicles in Road Transport and Electric Power Networks, in Autonomic Road Transport Support Systems, pp.233-253, Springer, 2016
E.Xydas, C. Marmaras, L.Cipcigan, N.Jenkins, Chapter 5 Smart management of PEV charging enhanced by PEV load forecasting , in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids, pp. 139-168, Springer Singapore, 2015
Paul Nieuwenhuis, Liana Cipcigan and Hasan Berkem Sonder, The Electric Vehicle Revolution, in Future Energy (Third Edition) Improved, Sustainable and Clean Options for our Planet, Ed: Trevor Letcher, ISBN: 9780081028865, Elsevier, 2020, pp 227-247.
Wells, P., and Nieuwenhuis, P. (2015) EV business models in a wider context: balancing change and continuity in the automotive industry, Chapter 1 pp3-16 in Beeton, D. and Meyer, G. (eds) Electric Vehicle Business Models – Global Perspectives, Heidelberg: Springer.
Wells, P. (2017) Transport Futures: Reconciling the on-demand economy with global production chains, Chapter 13 pp 315-332 in Pettit, S. and Beresford, A. (eds) International Freight Transport, London: Kogan Page.
Wells, P. (2015) Understanding change and difference, Chapter 2 pp 7-18 in Nieuwenhuis, P. and Wells, P. (eds) The global automotive industry, Chichester: John Wiley.
Wells, P. (2015) Alternatives to the car, Chapter 17 pp 199-206 in Nieuwenhuis, P. and Wells, P. (eds) The global automotive industry, Chichester: John Wiley.
Wells, P. (2015) New business models and the automotive industry, Chapter 18 pp 209-218 in Nieuwenhuis, P. and Wells, P. (eds) The global automotive industry, Chichester: John Wiley.
Wells, P., and Nieuwenhuis, P. (2015) The impacts of automobility, Chapter 13, pp 153-162 in Nieuwenhuis, P. and Wells, P. (eds) The global automotive industry, Chichester: John Wiley.
Wells, P. (2015) The market for new cars, Chapter 3 pp 19-28 in Nieuwenhuis, P. and Wells, P. (eds) The global automotive industry, Chichester: John Wiley.
Nieuwenhuis, P. and Wells, P. (2015) Introduction and overview, Chapter 1 pp 1-6 in Nieuwenhuis, P. and Wells, P. (eds) The global automotive industry, Chichester: John Wiley.
Dominic Dattero Snell; Aaron Parkes; Thomas Edwards; Liana Cipcigan, Small Scale Multivariate Testing of Dynamic Wireless Charging, Published in: 2020 55th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), September 2020,
Sonder, Hasan B., Cipcigan, Liana and Ugalde-Loo, Carlos E. 2020. Integrating DC fast/rapid chargers in low voltage distribution networks. Presented at: Mediterranean Conference on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (MedPower 2020), Virtual, 9-12 November 2020.
Sonder, H. B., Cipcigan, L. and Ugalde Loo, C. 2019. Using electric vehicles and demand side response to unlock distribution network flexibility. Presented at: IEEE PES PowerTech Milano 2019, Milan, Italy, 23-27 June 2019.
William Seward, Ryan Huxtable, Bradley Beynon, Arnas Zvirblys, Nicolas Camacho-Hunt, Maurizio Albano, Liana Cipcigan, Modelling of Static Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging and its Impact on a Typical GB Distribution Network, UPEC 2019, Bucharest, Romania, 3-6 September, 2019
Hasan Berkem Sonder, Liana Cipcigan, Carlos E. Ugalde-Loo, Voltage Analysis on MV/LV Distribution Networks with the Integration of DC Fast Charger, 6th IEEE International Energy Conference (EnergyCon), 28 September – 1 October 2020, Tunisia
R. Oliyide, C. Marmaras, E. Xydas, L. Cipcigan. Estimating the True GHG Emissions Reduction Due to Electric Vehicles Integration, UPEC 2015, September 2015
Wells, P. (2020) Automobility futures and COVID-19: a socio-technical systems perspective, Presentation for the PLACE (virtual) seminar series, 22nd October.
Wells, P. (2020) Integrated mobility: a fundamentalist approach, Presentation to Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (OIES) Fourth (Virtual) Mobility Workshop, 13th October.
Wells, P. (2020) Automotive Business Model Evolution, Presentation to the Centro de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel, Federal University of Brasilia, 6th May.
Wells, P. (2020) Creating the Automotive Business Model, Presentation to the Centro de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel, Federal University of Brasilia, 30th April.
Wells, P. (2020) Automotive battery LCA: The issues, Presentation to the Centro de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel, Federal University of Brasilia, 23rd April.
Markard, J.; Wells, P.; Lente, H. v.; and Yap, X. S., 2020. Unsustainable Transitions –A blind spot for transitions research? 11th IST Conference, Vienna, 18-21 August.
Wells, P., 2019. Automobility platforms, Presentation at FGV, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 14th November.
Wells, P., 2019. Future automobility, Presentation to the Centro de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel, Federal University of Brasilia, 15th October.
Wells, P. and Wang, L., 2019. Competitive Constellations As Boundary-Bridging In Socio-Technical Transitions: An Automotive Industry Case Study, Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on New Business Models, Berlin, 1st to 3rd July.
Skeete, J-P; Heidrich, O; Mohammad, R.; Hill, G. and Wells, P., 2019. Cars, EVs and battery recycling forecasts and economic models, Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Industrial Ecology, Beijing, 7-11th July.
Opportunities from the consumer BEV market inflection point
Grayling and Hitachi Capital (UK) PLC
Feasibility of using repurposed Li-ion batteries in stationary applications
Decarbonising Transport through Electrification, a Whole System Approach (DTE)
Electric Road System for Dynamic Charging of Electric Vehicles
Sustainable urban power supply through intelligent control and enhanced restoration of AC/DC networks
Low-cost electric Land Rovers for farmers and landowners
Recycling of Lithium Ion batteries (ReLib)
Faraday Institution (EPSRC)
P. Wells (CARBS)
STARS, Shared mobility opportunities And challenges for European cities
P. Wells (CARBS)
Interdisciplinary Doctoral Training Hub – Sustainable Transport
Creating demand for sustainable metals and minerals: The case of alternative fuelled vehicles and mobile phones
Integration of Electric Vehicles charging infrastructure with distribution grid: Global review, India’s gap analyses and way forward
IIT Bombay with funding from Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)
Transport Futures Research Network
University Research Networks Fund
Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure in UK
British Embassy Beijing
Ebbs and Flows Energy Systems
£1.8M total value of the project
(in this project the first V2G unit was installed and tested in a domestic property)
eBRIDGE: empowering e-fleets for business and private purposes in cities
Intelligent Energy Europe -EC
I CVUE : Incentives for Clean Vehicles in Urban Europe
Intelligent Energy Europe -EC
Multi-Agent Systems and Secured coupling of Telecom and Energy Grids for Next Generation smart grid services
ICT-Smart Energy Grids
Future balancing services for high levels of embedded electricity generation
Royal Academy of Engineering
Energy Strategy and Policy
The Future of Fleet report
BP and LAUNCH Media
Adoption of Electric Buses in India
Global Challenges Research Fund
Grid Economics, Planning and Business Models for Smart Electric Mobility
Smart Management of Electric Vehicles (SMEV)
Pathways – Electric Vehicle Value Chain, Bridging the gaps
Agent-based controllers for EVs and micro-generators
Mobile Energy Resources in Grids of Electricity (MERGE)
European network on electric vehicles and transferring expertise (ENEVATE)
Meet the team
- Shi, L. et al., 2021. A comprehensive charging network planning scheme for promoting EV charging infrastructure considering the chicken-eggs dilemma. Research in Transportation Economics 88 100837. (10.1016/j.retrec.2020.100837)
- Skeete, J. et al. 2020. Beyond the EVent horizon: battery waste, recycling, and sustainability in the United Kingdom electric vehicle transition. Energy Research and Social Science 69 101581. (10.1016/j.erss.2020.101581)
- Song, R. and Potoglou, D. 2020. Are existing battery electric vehicles adoption studies able to inform policy? A review for policymakers. Sustainability 12 (16) 6494. (10.3390/su12166494)
- Lefeng, S. et al., 2020. External benefits calculation of sharing electric vehicles in case of Chongqing China. Utilities Policy 64 101021. (10.1016/j.jup.2020.101021)
- Lefeng, S. et al., 2020. A framework for electric vehicle power supply chain development. Utilities Policy 64 101042. (10.1016/j.jup.2020.101042)
- Wells, P. et al. 2020. More friends than foes? The impact of automobility-as-a-service on the incumbent automotive industry. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 154 119975. (10.1016/j.techfore.2020.119975)
- Potoglou, D. et al. 2020. Consumer intentions for alternative fuelled and autonomous vehicles: A segmentation analysis across six countries. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 79 102243. (10.1016/j.trd.2020.102243)
- Potoglou, D. et al. 2020. To what extent do people value sustainable-resourced materials? A choice experiment with cars and mobile phones across six countries. Journal of Cleaner Production 246 118957. (10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118957)
- Skeete, J. 2019. Concentration of power: a UK case study examining the dominance of incumbent automakers and suppliers in automotive sociotechnical transitions. Global Transitions 1 , pp.93-103. (10.1016/j.glt.2019.06.001)
- Skeete, J. 2019. The obscure link between motorsport and energy efficient, low-carbon innovation: Evidence from the UK and European Union. Journal of Cleaner Production 214 , pp.674-684. (10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.048)
- Wells, P. E. 2018. Degrowth and techno-business model innovation: The case of Riversimple. Journal of Cleaner Production 197 (Part2), pp.1704-1710. (10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.186)
- Skeete, J. 2018. Level 5 autonomy: the new face of disruption in road transport. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 134 , pp.22-34. (10.1016/j.techfore.2018.05.003)
- Wells, P. and Nieuwenhuis, P. 2018. Over the hill? Exploring the other side of the Rogers' innovation diffusion model from a consumer and business model perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production 194 , pp.444-451. (10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.144)
- Lin, X. , Wells, P. and Sovacool, B. K. 2018. The death of a transport regime? The future of electric bicycles and transportation pathways for sustainable mobility in China. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 132 , pp.255-267. (10.1016/j.techfore.2018.02.008)
- Muhssin, M. T. et al. 2018. Potential of demand side response aggregation for the stabilization of the grids frequency. Applied Energy 220 , pp.643-656. (10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.03.115)
- Pettit, S. et al. 2018. Revisiting history: Can shipping achieve a second socio-technical transition for carbon emissions reduction?. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 58 , pp.292-307. (10.1016/j.trd.2017.05.001)
- Lin, X. , Wells, P. and Sovacool, B. K. 2017. Benign mobility? Electric bicycles, sustainable transport consumption behaviour and socio-technical transitions in Nanjing, China. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 103 , pp.223-234. (10.1016/j.tra.2017.06.014)
- Marmaras, C. , Xydas, E. and Cipcigan, L. 2017. Simulation of electric vehicle driver behaviour in road transport and electric power networks. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 80 , pp.239-256. (10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.004)
- Skeete, J. 2017. Examining the role of policy design and policy interaction in EU automotive emissions performance gaps. Energy Policy 104 , pp.373-381. (10.1016/j.enpol.2017.02.018)
- Wells, P. and Nieuwenhuis, P. 2017. Operationalizing deep structural sustainability in business: longitudinal immersion as extensive engaged scholarship. British Journal of Management 28 (1), pp.45-63. (10.1111/1467-8551.12201)
- Jin, T. et al., 2016. Review of virtual power plant applications for power system management and vehicle-to-grid market development. The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers 65 (12), pp.2251. (10.5370/KIEE.2016.65.12.2251)
- Xydas, E. , Marmaras, C. and Cipcigan, L. M. 2016. A multi-agent based scheduling algorithm for adaptive electric vehicles charging. Applied Energy 177 , pp.354-365. (10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.05.034)
- Dijk, M. , Wells, P. E. and Kemp, R. 2016. Will the momentum of the electric car last? Testing an hypothesis on disruptive innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 105 , pp.77-88. (10.1016/j.techfore.2016.01.013)
- Wells, P. E. 2016. Economies of scale versus small is beautiful: a business model approach based on architecture, principles and components in the beer industry. Organization & Environment 29 (1), pp.36-52. (10.1177/1086026615590882)
- Xydas, E. et al. 2016. A data-driven approach for characterising the charging demand of electric vehicles: A UK case study. Applied Energy 162 , pp.763-771. (10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.151)
- Wells, P. E. and Xenias, D. 2015. From 'freedom of the open road' to 'cocooning': Understanding resistance to change in personal private automobility. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 16 , pp.106-119. (10.1016/j.eist.2015.02.001)
- Wells, P. and Lin, X. 2015. Spontaneous emergence versus technology management in sustainable mobility transitions: Electric bicycles in China. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 78 , pp.371-383. (10.1016/j.tra.2015.05.022)
Media and policy advice
Prof. Peter Wells has been quoted in most of the leading English-language print, TV and radio outlets concerned with business over the years, including for example Wall Street Journal; Time Magazine; Financial Times; Bloomberg; New York Times; the Economist; the Engineer; all of the BBC TV and Radio channels (except Radio 3); and many more local or specialized outlets. Much of the radio and television work has been live on air, sometimes on location outside factories or other facilities.
I have been quoted extensively over the years in the more specialized industry press by journals such as Automotive News, Steel Times, Aluminium Today, Plastic and Rubber Weekly, etc.
Professor Peter Wells has contributed to an article which argues that Europe’s electric vehicle future is closer than ever before. (Automotive News Europe) January 2021.
Professor Peter Wells has commented on industry data showing British new car sales crashed to the lowest level for almost three decades in 2020, with demand ravaged by chronic coronavirus fallout and Brexit uncertainty. (International Business Times; RTL Today; Tech Xplore; Journal Auto; Zone Bourse; China Daily) January 2021
Professor Peter Wells has commented on reports that Hyundai is set to partner with Apple on the production of 400,000 self-driving electric vehicles. Amidst other partnerships rumoured with Tesla, Volkswagen and Chinese automakers, Wells said: “Which car manufacturer will be the first to ‘succumb’ to Apple becoming a foundry manufacturer, this is the biggest problem.” (12365 Auto; HX2 Car; Guba; East Money; Shanghai Securities News; Sina Finance) January 2021
Professor Peter Wells has commented on California-based startup Archer’s partnership with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Archer’s set to pursue volume production of its passenger eVTOL aircraft together with FCA’s supply chain and manufacturing expertise. “That expertise, in terms of being able to go into what is probably primarily an aerospace supply chain and kick it into shape, so to speak, to meet automotive-style standards and requirements I think will be a valuable asset,” Wells said. (eVTOL) January 2021
Professor Peter Wells has commented in an article about how Renault, Ford and Honda are looking to the past for electric vehicle inspiration. (Automotive News Europe) January 2021
Professor Peter Wells has commented in an article about Apple’s production of a self-driving car. He said: “Apple could usher in a new era in the car industry.” (Zing News; Bao Hom Nay; Bao Hai Duong) January 2021
Research from Dr Paul Nieuwenhuis and Professor Peter Wells has featured in an article about London-based electric vehicle (EV) manufacturer Arrival. (Autocar) January 2021
Professor Peter Wells has commented on the potential difficulties Apple may have in entering into the auto industry. Of the Technology company’s former relationship with car manufacturer BMW, he said: “BMW used to work with Apple for a while, but then it went nowhere. I think luxury brands can hardly work with Apple, partly because the corporate culture is so different. It is very difficult for two major brands to launch a product or service together.” (Zing News) February 2021
Professor Peter Wells has commented on motor power in electric vehicles. He said: “As is usually the case with ‘premium’ technology options in the automotive industry, we can expect a rapid transfer to the mass market arising from competitive pressures. In some cases, manufacturers have designed-in the ability to migrate from 400 volt to 800 volts as costs fall and as competitiveness comes to require such systems.” (DRIVEMODE; Youris) February 2021
Professor Peter Wells ha commented on Apple’s plans to create an Electric Vehicle. He said: “Making cars in large quantities is a real challenge that the tech giants will not want to face alone. It takes a lot of time and a huge amount of investment to be able to create a car model, not to mention a factory, building supply chains and distribution networks.” (ICT News; VietBao; NDH) February 2021
Professor Peter Wells appeared on South Korea TV to discuss the future of EV's. Watch the discussion.
Professor Peter Wells and Dr Dimitrios Xenias contributed to the following articles in the Evening Standard. Read about ebikes in London. Read about electric car ownership. Read about the UK learning from Norway.
Prof. Liana Cipcigan commented in an article on Telegraph about tidal-powered electric vehicle charger, 23 March 2021. Read about the tidal-powered charger.
Prof. Liana Cipcigan interviewed and featured on an article in E&T magazine of the Institution of Engineering and Technology titled "Are we Geared up for EVs?", 10 July 2020. Read the interview.
Prof. Liana Cipcigan was a member of the Business Leader panel “What will the car of the future look like?” and feature in the article in Business Leader Magazine, 30 July 2020. Read the magazine article.
Prof. Liana Cipcigan was interviewed and featured in an article in NewStatesman, "Why the government needs to drive the UK’s electric vehicle dream". Read the article.
BBC news in “Leadership needed on EVs, say experts” 29 November 2018. Read the BBC story.
Prof. Liana Cipcigan was interviewed by The Engineer, Research network set to electrify UK transport system, 20 June 2019. Read the interview in the Engineer.
Prof. Liana Cipcigan commented in an article published by Highways Industry, “Does the future look bright with the rise of electric vehicles?”, 12 November, 2019. Read the Highways Industry article.
Prof. Liana Cipcigan was interviewed in “Electric revolution and the struggle for power”, Express and Star, Nov 11, 2019. Read the story in the Star.
Prof. Liana Cipcigan commented in “German e-cars still hampered by lack of charging stations” Deutsche Welle (DW), by Nik Martin, Germany, 8 August 2018. Read the DW story.
Prof. Liana Cipcigan was interviewed, “Analysis: Switch to electric vehicles would add just 10% to UK power demand”, Carbon Brief with Dr Simon Evans Policy Editor, 27 July 2017. Read the Carbon Brief interview.
Advising policy makers
Prof. Liana Cipcigan was an invited expert at House of Lords “Shaping the Future of EVs, debating the EV Bill” roundtable (2018).
Prof. Liana Cipcigan gave evidence to The Committee on Climate Change, Reducing emissions from transport, open meeting Cardiff, 23 November 2018 (Twitter @theCCCuk 23 Nov 2018)
Electric Vehicle Centre of Excellence members provided recommendations to the Welsh Ministry for Economy, Science and Transport in the “Low Carbon Vehicles” (2016) report. Read the report.
Electric Vehicle Centre of Excellence experts participated in Low Carbon Vehicles Steering Group at Welsh Government. Read the published report.