Ewch i’r prif gynnwys
Yr Athro Jean-Yves Maillard

Yr Athro Jean-Yves Maillard

Professor of Pharmaceutical Microbiology

+44 (0)29 2087 9088
+44 (0)29 2087 4149
Adeilad Redwood , Rhodfa'r Brenin Edward VII, Caerdydd, CF10 3NB
Sylwebydd y cyfryngau


I am a member of the School's research themes:

My research focuses on antimicrobial biocides, an area of continuing global importance due in part to the rise in hospital acquired infections (HAIs) and emerging microbial resistance.  

News Items


  • PhD - Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, Wales, UK - 1994
  • BSc (Hons) - School of Pure and Applied Microbiology, Cardiff University, Wales, UK -1991
  • DUT (Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie) - Claude Bernard University, Lyon, France - 1988


After completing a PhD on "the mechanisms of action biocides against viruses" at the Welsh School of Pharmacy, and a brief spell as an officer in the French Health Corp (St Anne' hospital, Toulon, France), I was fortunate to be appointed as a Lecturer at the Welsh School of Pharmacy at Cardiff. 

In 2001, I accepted a position of Senior Lecturer at the School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences at Brighton, before returning to Cardiff in 2004. My return to Cardiff enabled me to redevelop Pharmaceutical Microbiology Research within the Welsh School of Pharmacy. I was made Professor of Pharmaceutical Microbiology in July 2013.

Anrhydeddau a Dyfarniadau

AD Russel Memorial Lecture Award2012

This lecture award is given at the annual January Conference by a microbiologist who has made substantial contribution to the field of Applied Microbiology. This Memorial Lecture was instituted in 2005 to commemorate the life and works of the late A. Denver Russell (1936-2004), Professor of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and a long-time member of the Society.

AD Russel Memorail Teleclass Lecture Award2012

This lecture award is given annually by a microbiologist who has made substantial contribution to the field of Applied Microbiology. This Memorial Teleclass Lecture Award was instituted in 2011 to commemorate the life and works of the late A. Denver Russell (1936-2004), Professor of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and contributor to the Teleclass program.

Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain Academic Excellence Award 2007Joint recipient
British Pharmaceutical Conference Science Medal2004

An award given under the auspices of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain and the Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences for a scientist working in a pharmaceutical or allied discipline in industry or academia, who has a proven record of independent research and whose published work shows outstanding promise. Invitations for this award are invited world-wide. 

W.H. Pierce Memorial prize2004

This prestigious prize is awarded each year at the annual Summer Conference to the young microbiologist (under 40) who has made a substantial contribution to the science of applied microbiology.

Federation of European Microbiology Societies (FEMS) Research Fellowship1998

FEMS Research Fellowships are meant to assist young European scientists in pursuing research up to 3 months in a European country different from that in which she/he lives.

Aelodaethau proffesiynol

  • Chief Editor of Letters in Applied Microbiology
  • Member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Antimicrobial chemotherapy
  • Member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Applied Microbiology
  • Member of the Society for Applied Microbiology
  • Member of the Healthcare Infection Society
  • Member of the CH/216/0-/01 Antimicrobial Hard Surfaces group (2012)
  • Member of the AHRAI/HIS Task force on sporicidal disinfectants (2010)
  • External examiner of Microbiology, Biotechnology, and Food Science & Microbiology degrees at the University of Surrey (2012-)
  • External examiner of the Master of Pharmacy in Pharmaceutical Sciences at Manchester University (2005-2010)
  • External scientific expert of the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR – European Commission) (2007-2010)
  • External scientific expert of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS – European Commission) (2009-2010)
  • Hearing scientific expert of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2009-2010)

Ymrwymiadau siarad cyhoeddus

Professional lectures since 2011

  • 2015 TELECLASS 2015: Are towelettes effective for surface decontamination in healthcare settings?
  • 2014 TELECLASS: Host of the AD Russell memorial Webinar: Antibacterial Efficacy of Atmospheric Pressure Non-Thermal Plasmas Reconsider? Given by Dr B Gilmore
  • 2013 TELECLASS: Host of the AD Russell memorial Webinar: Does Improving Surface Cleaning and Disinfection Reduce Healthcare-Associated Infections?  Given by Prof WA Rutala
  • 2012 TELECLASS: AD Russell memorial Teleclass Lecture recipient: Innate Resistance to Sporicides and Potential Failure to Decontaminate
  • 2011 TELECLASS: Host of the AD Russell memorial Webinar: The Spaulding Classification, Disinfection and Sterilization: Is it Time to Reconsider? Given by Dr G McDonnell

Conference organiser

  • SfAM (2012) Microbial resistance to antibiotics and biocides (Edinburgh, UK)
  • SfAM (2010) Advances in biocide development (London, UK)
  • ASM (2004) Biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria: an update; New Orleans, USA.
  • ASM (2004) Biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria: policies and issues: where do we go from here? New Orleans, USA.
  • RPSGB (2002) Current problems in infection controls; Manchester (UK)
  • SfAM (2001) Antibiotic and biocide resistance in bacteria: Perception and realities for prevention and treatment of infection; Swansea, Wales
  • SfAM (1999) Isolation and inactivation of difficult micro-organisms; London, UK
  • SfAM (1998) Revival of injured micro-organisms after antimicrobial treatments; London, UK
  • SfAM (1998) Novel approaches to chemotherapeutic agents; London, UK
  • SfAM (1997) Disinfection methods, efficacy, and legislation; London, UK
  • SfAM (1996) Viricides; Bradford, UK 

Invited keynote speaker in last 3 years

    • 2015  IBMS 2015 (Birmingham, UK): Disinfectants – do they really kill ‘all known germs dead’?
    • 2015 Anios 2015 (Cannes, France): Elimination of bacterial endospores. Sporicides: do they actually work?
    • 2015 COST (Toulouse, France): Bacterial spore structures and their protective role in biocide resistance
    • 2015  Royal Society of Medicine (London, UK): Should microbial bioburden be eliminated from environmental surfaces in healthcare setting? If so, how?
    • 2015  INFORMA 2015, Berlin (Germany): Bacterial spore structures and their protective role in biocide resistance: how this impacts formulation and design of biocidal products.
    • 2014 9th Healthcare Infection Society (HIS) International Conference 2014; in Association with the French Society for Hospital Hygiene (SF2H), Lyon (France): Antimicrobial wipe testing, efficacy and usage
    • 2014 4th Oxford Bacteriophage conference, Phages 2014, Oxford (UK): Improving phage virulence and activity spectrum for antibacterial therapy
    • 2014 H3i – BACS, Birmingham: Update on biocidal product risks of emerging bacterial resistance
    • 2014 INFORMA 2014, Berlin (Germany): Bacterial resistance to biocides – Impact of the Biocidal Product Regulation
    • 2013 COST-Antimicrobial. Prague (Czech Republic) Bacterial resistance and cross-resistance to biocidal products - reality and implications.
    • 2013  ACIPC2013, Gold Coast (Australia): Antimicrobial wipes: do they work for surface decontamination?
    • 2013  AIPI 2013, Montreal (Canada): Bacterial Resistance to Microbicides: Is our Future Futile?
    • 2013 MAC-EPID symposium, Ann Harbor (USA): Microbicide resistance in Healthcare settings: a cause for concerns?
    • 2013 INFORMA 2013, Berlin (Germany): Development of Efficacy Tests for the Decontamination of Environmental Surfaces.
    • 2013 INFORMA 2013, Berlin (Germany): Evening Seminar: Novel delivery systems for biocides.
    • Efficacy Test Service

      We have great expertise in developing reproducible efficacy test protocols that mimics the real environment. The tests we have developed and offering as a service have helped manufacturers to understand better the efficacy of their biocidal products in the real world and have provided manufacturers with documented evidence on their product activity where standard efficacy tests are not available. Reports and test designs are described for customers to understand easily the principle and impact of the test results.

      The 3-Stage Test for measuring the efficacy of antimicrobial wipes (disinfectant and sporicidal wipes) has been used by manufacturers to measure the activity of their products against key pathogens such as spore of Clostridium difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii and viruses

      The Ex-Vivo Test for measuring the activity of an antiseptic on skin against microbial pathogens. This test which is based on the used of excised pig skin, provide manufacturers with an understanding of the efficacy of their product against key pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumanii. For further information see the following peer-reviewed publications:

      Messager S et al. J Appl Microbiol 2004; 97(6): 1149-1160
Messager S et al. J Hosp Infect  2004; 58: 115-121.

      In collaboration with the HIS/ARHAI, we are currently finalizing the development of a Sporicidal Suspension Test for the Use of Clostridium difficile. This test will offer manufacturer of sporicidal product an appropriate protocol for claims make against spores of C. difficile. For further information refers to: http://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(14)00312-0/fulltext

      Antimicrobial Surface Test: we are finalizing the development of an antimicrobial test to replace the ISO 22196. Our test is based on the formation of wet or dried microbial inoculum and the deposition of the inoculum on test surfaces. For further information. Link to 2

      With the Biocide Product Regulation, manufacturers of biocidal products are required to provide evidence that their product will not cause an increase in biocide resistance in the target micro-organisms. We have validated a Test to Predict the Development of Bacterial Resistance to a Biocide. In essence this test is based on measuring a change in antimicrobial  (both biocide and antibiotic) susceptibility profile before and after biocide exposure. The test is standardised and biocide exposure reflects the condition of usage of the product.

      We have helped the healthcare industry with specific microbiological test issue by designing specific testing protocols to answer a specific problem. For example of the ad hoc test design please see the following publications: 

      Yusop N et al. J Pharm Pharmacol 2011; 63(2): 164-168

      Panousi MN et al. Lett Appl Microbiol 2009; 48: 648-651

      Pinto F et al. Lett Appl Microbiol 2009; 48: 379-382.






















I lecture on Pharmaceutical Microbiology to all 4 years of the MPharm degree: 

  • MPharm 1:  PH1123: Structure and Function of Cells and Microbes (module leader)
  • MPharm 2:  PH2107: Formulation Science 1
  • MPharm 3: PH3101: Optimisation of Drug Design 
  • MPharm 4: PH4112: Pharmacy Advanced Research Specialisation 
  • MPharm 4: PH4208: Pharmacy Research Project 

Postgraduate students 

Current research students

  • Kerry Guest (2011- ) Bacterial resistance to biocides: an assessment of resistance mechanisms and method development.
  • Michelle OJeil (2010-) Biocide impregnated surface materials for use in clinical areas – under what conditions do they work?
  • Laura Knapp (2010-) Bacterial resistance to biocides: an assessment of resistance and mechanisms
  • Madhan Mohan Natarajan (2010-) Characterisation of pulpal responses to bacterial challenge and novel antimicrobials for management of bacterial contamination of infected pulps and root canals

Past research students 

  • Ezra Linley (2008-2012) Understanding the interactions of oxidizing agents with macromolecules and microbial cell components
  • Jenna Bowen (2008-2012) Detection of Lipopolysaccharide pyrogens by molecularly-imprinted polymers
  • Callum Cooper (2007-2010) Controlled delivery of bacterial viruses for the eradication of bacterial infection
  • Keely Cheeseman (2006-2009) Surveillance of susceptibility profile to antiseptics in ITU isolates of Staphylococcus aureus including MRSA
  • Federica Pinto (2006-2009) Mechanisms of viricidal action of polyhexamethylene biguanide 
  • Jessica Roberts (2006-2009) Ex-vivo modelling of antimicrobial control measures in pulpal disease. Joint with School of Dentistry (Richard Whipp studentship)
  • Deborah Martin (2005-2008) Understanding survival in, and the development of microbial resistance to, high-level disinfectants
  • Alexandra Henein (2003-2007) The potential of bacteriophage therapy in Acinetobacter spp. infections (University of Brighton), writing up
  • Bee Ann Yeep (2003-2007) Novel dendrimer-functionalised surfaces for fast DNA detection and extraction (University of Brighton)
  • Jennifer Shackelford (2003-2006) Investigation into the activity of ortho-phthalaldehyde against biofilm bacteria using an in vitro model system (University of Brighton)
  • Hannah Pearce (2002-2005) The preservation of complex oral liquids (University of Brighton)
  • Teresa Gallagher (2002-2005) Light activated antibiotic delivery to control microbial colonisation of medical devices (University of Brighton)
  • Alison Cottell (2001-2004) Understanding bacterial resistance to biocides: study of the effects of sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations on bacterial growth (University of Brighton)
  • Caroline Codling (2000-2003) Mechanisms of the antimicrobial action of Poliquad and Aldox.
  • Emma Rees (2000-2003) Mechanisms of mycobacterial resistance to biocides.
  • Margarita Gomez-Escalada (1999-2002) Diphenyl-ethers mode of action and possible relation with antibiotic resistance.
  • Sebastien Fraud (1999-2002) Mechanisms of the mycobactericidal action of ortho-phthalaldehyde
  • Syndie Messager (1998-2001) Development of an "ex-vivo" test to study microbial survival on human skin and antimicrobial formulations with an antiseptic property.
  • John Lear (1998-2001): Possible linked biocide-antibiotic resistance in bacteria
  • Louise Thomas (1998-2001) Development of resistance to chlorhexidine diacetate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the effect of a 'residual' concentration.
  • Caroline Huntley (1997-2000) Novel RNA binding agents.
  • Susannah Walsh (1996-1999): Studies on the antibacterial activity and mechanisms of action of ortho-phthalaldehyde: a possible alternative to glutaraldehyde for high level disinfection

Research interests include: 

  • Sporicides, disinfectants and preservatives (biocides)
  • Efficacy of biocides and biocidal products against micro-organisms including mycobacteria, Clostridium difficile and protozoa
  • Mechanisms of action of biocides
  • Mechanisms of microbial resistance and cross-resistance to antimicrobials
  • Development of realistic efficacy test protocols for biocidal product development
  • Enhanced formulations for biocidal products

Current research projects


  • Prof. S. Sattar; University of Ottawa, Canada
  • Dr M.A. Webber; University of Birmingham
  • Prof. A. Sloan (Cardiff University, School of Dentistry)
  • Dr C. Lynch (Cardiff University, School of Dentistry)
  • Dr A. Fraise (NHS Trust, Birmingham)
  • Dr T. Bradley (NHS Trust, Birmingham)
  • Dr J. Walker (HPA, Porton Down)
  • Dr M. Samoes (University of Porto, Portugal)
  • Prof. N. Woodford (PHE, London)
  • Dr M. Sutton (PHE, Porton Down)
  • Dr I. Fallis (Cardiff University, School of Chemistry)
  • Dr E. Mahenthiralingam, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University
  • Dr P.J. de Pablo (university of Madrid)

Postdoctoral fellows

  • Dr Maria Rubiano Saavedra (2015): Antimicrobial surfaces
  • Dr Jawal Said (2015-2017): Development of anti-biofilm wipe products
  • Dr Wayne Ayre (2013-)

Key expertise 

  • Determining biocides  and biocidal products efficacy against micro-organisms: bacteria (including mycobacteria), viruses (including poliovirus and adenovirus type 5), bacterial endospores including Clostridium difficile, protozoa
  • Designing an developing realistic ad hoc biocide efficacy test protocols for product development
  • Biocide interactions with microbial cells
  • Development of microbial resistance to biocides and to chemotherapeutic antibiotics

Current research funding

2015NIHRBiocide impregnated surface materials for use in clinical areas – under what conditions do they work?£54,185
2015-2016KTP (Cardiff University/GAMA Healthcare)Development of anti-biofilm wipe products£115,895
2015-2018HISEffect of commonly used antimicrobial biocides in healthcare settings on the maintenance and transfer of multi drug resistance genes in Gram-negative bacteria£92,999
2011-2016 DENTLCharacterisation of pulpal responses to bacterial challenge and novel antimicrobials for management of bacterial contamination of infected pulps and root canals. 
2014-2016 Reckitt BenckiserUSA Mechanisms of virucidal action of novel formulations£110,500
2015-2016MRCLiposomal delivery of antimicrobials from dental£45,391