The first large-scale study to compare experiences of protracted displacement to explore how living in cities or camps produce different outcomes for refugees' wellbeing, self-reliance and livelihoods.
Bordering Economies aims to unveil the implications and the scope of refugees’ participation in informal cross-border trade between their countries of origin and hosting areas close to the frontier across three continents.
Slums and informal settlements are often vibrant centres of economic activity, with a mesh of small-scale enterprises and home-based work. This report explores their role in participatory slum upgrading.
Although Fair Trade governance operates in formalised supply chains, much of the Fair Trade movement aims to support own-account workers and micro-enterprises which are often as part of the informal economy.