Professor Geoffrey Haddock BSc Toronto, MA PhD Waterloo

Professor Geoffrey Haddock

BSc Toronto, MA PhD Waterloo


School of Psychology

+44 (0)29 2087 5373
Tower Building, 70 Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT

Research summary

My primary area of research is  the psychology of attitudes.  Within this area, I have a number of  research interests, including: (a) the role of affective and cognitive  processes in attitudes, (b) the impact on mindfulness on attitudes and attitude  change, (c) how individual differences influence attitude processes, (d) the  implicit and explicit measurement of attitudes and attitudinal components, and (e)  how reading persuasive material in different media formats influences attitudes  and attitude change.  Other research helps to understand how social values  get translated into action. This research is being undertaken in collaboration  with colleagues in the Values in  Action (ViA) Centre, at Cardiff University.

Teaching summary

At Level 5, I teach on the Social  Psychology I module (PS2016), where my lectures cover the topics of helping  behaviour, aggression, social psychology and health, and social psychology and  politics.

At Level 6, I teach on the  Attitudes and Attitude Change module (PS3418).  The aims of the module are  (a) to develop students’ understanding of the concept of attitude and its  importance in social psychology and (b) make students familiar with theories of  attitude and, especially, the research that has been used to test these  theories.

Undergraduate project supervision  is in the area of the psychology of attitudes.

Undergraduate education

I attended the University of Toronto, where I received my B.Sc. in 1989.

Postgraduate education

I completed my Ph.D. at the University of Waterloo.  My Ph.D. thesis explored   the extent to which affective and cognitive information differentially influence   attitudes across individuals.  Upon completion of my Ph.D., I spent a year as a   post-doctoral fellow at the University of Michigan before moving to the United   Kingdom in 1995.


1994-1995: Lecturer and Visiting Scholar, The University of Michigan

1995-1999: Lecturer, University of Exeter

1999-2000: Senior Lecturer, University of Exeter

2000-2001: Lecturer, University of Bristol

2001-2006: Senior Lecturer, Cardiff University

2006-2010: Reader, Cardiff University

2010-present: Professor, Cardiff University

Honours and awards

Awards/external committees

Editorial Duties

1999-2003: Associate Editor: British Journal of Social Psychology

2007-2011: Associate Editor: British Journal of Psychology

2011-2012: Associate Editor: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

2013-2015: Associate Editor: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

2005-2009: Consulting Editor: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

2004-present:  Consulting Editor: British Journal of Social Psychology

2006-2014: Consulting Editor:  European Journal of Social Psychology 2013-present:  Consulting Editor: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

Examination Duties

2003-7: External Examiner, Undergraduate Degrees in Psychology, University of   Surrey

2006-2010: External Examiner, Undergraduate Degrees in Psychology,   University of Sheffield

2011-2015: External Examiner.  M.Sc. Degrees, University of Kent

2011-2015: External Examiner,  Undergraduate Degrees in Psychology, University of Aberdeen

2015-present: External Examiner,  Undergraduate Degrees in Psychology, University of Essex

Review Boards

2010-present: Member of ESRC Peer Review College

International Research Conference Organisation

2000: European Association of Experimental Social Psychology conference   titled “Attitudes Research in the 21st Century: Integrating Mental Models and   Motivation”, Gregynog, Wales (with G. R. Maio)

2004: European Association of Experimental Social Psychology conference   titled “Conscious and Unconscious Attitudinal Processes”, La Cristalera, Spain   (with G. R. Maio, P. Briñol, & R. E. Petty)

2008: European Association of Experimental Social Psychology conference   titled “Affective Processes in Evaluation”, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (with G.   R. Maio, P. Briñol, R. Holland, & R. E. Petty)

2012:  European Association of Social Psychology conference titled “Motivational  components of attitudes”, Ghent, Belgium (with G. R. Maio, P. Briñol, R. Holland, R. E. Petty,  & A. Spruuyt)

2016: European Association of Social  Psychology conference titled “Experience-based  versus information-based attitude processes: On the psychology of attitudes”, Cologne, Germany (with C. Unkelbach, A. Gast, S. Topolinski, P. Briñol, R. Holland, G. Maio, R.  Petty, & D. Wegener)

























Research topics and related papers

My research concentrates on the psychology of attitudes.  I am interested in   questions such as how do we form and organise our opinions?  How do our opinions   change and evolve over time?  For example, here are three different types of   questions I find interesting:

How do different people respond to different types of persuasive   appeals?

When I was growing up, there used to be a series of famous   television advertisements in which former professional athletes exalted their   preference for a particular brand of beer.  While some of the athletes noted   that the beer tasted great, others replied that it was less   filling than other beers.  From an attitudes point of view, you can say   that the first part of the message highlights a positive affective response   associated with the beverage (i.e., its taste), whereas the second part   highlights a positive attribute about the beverage (i.e., its low caloric   intake).  Using this analogy, my colleagues and I are interested in knowing   whether some people are more persuaded by an affective people and others more   persuaded by a cognitive appeal.  To date, our research (see Haddock et al.,   2008) has demonstrated that the effectiveness of affect- and cognition-based   messages is dependent upon individual differences in need for affect (Maio &   Esses, 2001) and need for cognition (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982).  Current   research explores how these individual differences influence the information to   which we visually attend and how such information is encoded.

How do differences across people influence   their beliefs about their attitudes?

Another recent line of research explores how individual   differences in implicit and explicit self-esteem influence attitudes.  Recent   research has demonstrated that individuals who score high on a measure of   implicit self-esteem and low on a measure of explicit self-esteem often engage   in defensive behaviour.  This might manifest itself by reporting higher lelves   of narcissism and/or greater levels of ingroup bias.  My colleagues are   interested in understanding how defensive self-esteem might impact people’s   beliefs about their attitudes.

How does mindfulness relate to attitudinal processes?

More recently, I have become  interested in potential inks between mindfulness and attitudinal  phenomena.  Mindfulness reflects a conscious awareness of  what is occurring in the present, with less attention devoted to rumination  about the past or anxieties about the future. Numerous streams of research have  documented the psychological benefits associated with heightened levels of  mindfulness.  In our work, we are seeking  to understand how mindfulness is associated with the content, structure, and  function of attitudes, as well as how mindfulness is linked with outcomes such  as eating behavior and intergroup relations.


2004-6: "Implicit and explicit bases of values: Implications for behaviour   change" - Economic and Social Research Council (£46890 - with Prof. G. R.   Maio).

2004-6: "Do memory-impaired individual retain access to their attitudes" -   Alzheimer's Research Trust (£6820 - with Dr. M. A. Newson and Prof. G.   Wilcock).

2004-7: "Effects of affective, cognitive, and behavioural anti-racism   advertisements" - Economic and Social Research Council (£136236 - with Prof. G.   R. Maio).

2009-12: "Lifestyle change: Values and volition" - Economic and Social   Research Council (FEC £424490 - with Dr. K. Tapper and Prof. G. R. Maio).

2015-8: “The impacts of mindfulness on values and attitudes” – The  Leverhulme Trust (£153878)

Research group

I am a member of the social psychology research group.

Research collaborators

Within the School, my primary  collaborators are Ulrich  von Hecker, and Colin Foad.  Outside the School, recent collaborators  include Katy  Tapper (City University), Inma Adarves-Yorno (University of Exeter), Gabriela  Jiga-Boy (Swansea University), and Takaya  Kohyama (Doshisha University, Japan).

Postgraduate research interests

My primary area of research is  the psychology of attitudes.  Within this  area, I have a number of research interests, including: (a) the role of  affective and cognitive processes in attitudes, (b) the impact on mindfulness  on attitudes and attitude change, (c) how individual differences influence  attitude processes, (d) the implicit and explicit measurement of attitudes and  attitudinal components, and (e) how reading persuasive material in different  media formats influences attitudes and attitude change.

If you are interested in applying for a PhD, or for further information  regarding my postgraduate research, please contact me directly (contact details available on the 'Overview' page), or submit a formal application here.

Past projects

Previous students

Tom Huskinson – Tom’s research explored whether people  generally base their attitudes on different types of information, and the implications  of these individual differences on attitude-relevant phenomena.  Tom is currently an Associate Director at  IPSOS-MORI.

Helen Penny – Helen’s research explored anti-fat  prejudice among children.  She explored the pervasiveness of this  prejudice, the age at which anti-fat prejudice is present, and the effects of  anti-fat prejudice. Upon completing her Ph.D., Helen completed clinical  training at the Institute of Psychiatry.

Rose Thompson – Rose’s research explored how stories  can be used to change attitudes.  She examined whether narratives are more  effective in eliciting attitude change among some individuals, and how  narratives work to change attitudes. Rose is currently A Senior Researcher at  the McPin Foundation.

Paul Hutchings – Paul’s research explored how individual  differences in prejudice influence how people facial expressions of in-group  and out-group members. Paul is currently Programme Director in Psychology at  the University of Wales Trinity St. David.

Ben Windsor-Shellard – Ben’s research explored the correlates  and consequences of implicit-explicit attitude ambivalence. Ben is currently a  Research Scientist at the Office for National Statistics.

Karis Vaughan –  Karis’ research explores the role of mindfulness in eating behaviour and weight  management.