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 Kaisa Pankakoski

Kaisa Pankakoski

Research student, School of Welsh

Siarad Cymraeg


After completing an undergraduate degree in European Studies at the University of Portsmouth I gained a Master’s degree in International Journalism at Cardiff University. My dissertation titled Euroscepticism in Britain and Finland: attitudes and print media since accession looked at the two countries’ different histories and societies leading to different cultures of euroscepticism in a comparative analysis in the pre-Brexit era. My dissertation, that was awarded distinction, sparked my interest in research.

I spent ten years working as a freelance researcher, journalist, writer, and translator in Wales, Finland and Chile before returning to academia in 2015. I am now a PhD candidate at the School of Welsh. My current research focuses on sociolinguistic aspects of intergenerational language transmission of trilingual children in Finland and Wales.

Honours and awards

I am truly grateful for the PhD funding awarded:

The Finnish National Agency for Education

The Philological Society

Funds for women graduates

The Finnish Section of the Nordic Federation of Public Administration

City of Helsinki Research Grant

The Finnish Literature Society

Articles regarding my research project

The BBC: Byw mewn tair iaith

Golwg: Magu plant mewn tair iaith yng Nghymru a'r Ffindir

Cardiff University: Research student set for Finnish adventure


Research interests

Multilingualism, trilingualism, bilingualism, sociolinguistics, linguistics, sociology of language, second language acquisition, child trilingualism, early second or third language acquisition, trilingual first language acquisition, attitudes, special needs, autism


Arvola, O., Pankakoski, K., Reunamo J., & Kyttälä, M. (2020). Culturally and linguistically diverse children’s participation and social roles in the Finnish Early Childhood Education - is play the common key? Early Child Development and Care, DOI: 10.1080/03004430.2020.1716744.

Pankakoski, K. (2020). Lapsiperhearkea kolmella kielellä. Vähäisiä lisiä. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran blogi. ISSN 2341-7285

Pankakoski, K. & Pietikäinen, S. (2020). Kieli kasvaa lasta kuuntelemalla. Perhe maailmalla.

Arfon, E., Jepson, E, and Pankakoski, K. (2020). Multilingualism and multi-identities in Wales: a creative approach to research and practice conference report. 

Pankakoski, K. (2020). Cardiffin Suomi-koulu tukee walesinsuomalaisten lasten kielen kehitystä. Perhe maailmalla.

Pankakoski, K. (2019). The potential of polyglots. School of Welsh Blog.

Pankakoski, K. (2019). Potensial pobl amlieithog. Blog Ysgol y Gymraeg. 

Pankakoski, K. (2019). Words of wisdom for new postgraduate researchers: Part two. Doctoral Academy Blog.

Pankakoski, K. (2019). Words of wisdom for new postgraduate researchers: Part one. Doctoral Academy Blog. 

Arfon, E., Jepson, E, and Pankakoski, K. (2019). Multilingualism and multi-identities in Wales: a creative approach to research and practice conference blog. 

Pankakoski, K. (2019). Should you go on a writing retreat? Doctoral Academy Blog.

Pankakoski, K. (2017). Trilingual families in bilingual capital cities. The Philological Society Blog.

Pankakoski, K. (2016) Trilingual tricks. Finn-Guild Links. April 2016, p. 8.

Pankakoski, K. (2005). Euroscepticism in Britain and Finland: attitudes and print media since accession. MA International Journalism, Cardiff University, Cardiff.

Engagement, impact and presentations

Presentation: Trilingual families in Finland and Wales: primary results from the parents' interviews. The 12th Nordic Conference on Bilingualism. 16-18 June 2021. Stockholm Unitersity, Sweden (postponed due to Covid-19).

Presentation: Vertaileva tutkimus kolmikielisistä perheistä Suomessa ja Walesissa: vanhempien kokemukset. XLVII Linguistics Days. 5-7 May 2021. Tampere University, Finland (postponed due to Covid-19).

Presentation: A cat called Kedi and how to raise a polyglot. Three Minute Thesis. 30 June 2020. Cardiff University Doctoral Academy, Wales.

Presentation: Multilingualism in Wales. Creative Multilingualism: New Perspectives on Modern Languages Research. 17 March 2020. Oxford University, England.

Poster presentation: Families' unsettling themes. The Wales Studies Network launch. 29 January 2020. The Learned Society of Wales, Cardiff, Wales.

Poster presentation: Trilingual families' themes of unsettlement. Migration Ethnicity, Race, Diversity Research Group. 11 December 2019. Doctoral Academy, Wales.

Photography presentation: Babbling bilinguals. Images of Research. 10 December 2019. Cardiff University, Wales.

Organising Multilingualism and multi-identities in Wales: a creative approach to research and practice conference with two doctoral colleagues Elin Arfon and Eira Jepson. Funding awarded by Creative Multilingualism. 6 November, 2019, Cardiff University, Wales.

Poster presentation: Vertaileva tutkimus kolmikielisistä perheistä Suomessa ja Walesissa: vähemmistökieltä tukevat strategiat. XLVI Linguistics days. 16-18 May 2019. University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.

Photography presentation: Ett, två, tre, fyra, yes! À toi! Images of Research. 11 December 2018. Cardiff University, Wales.

Poster presentation: A comparative study of trilingual families in Helsinki and Cardiff: intergenerational language transmission methods. Multilingual Awareness and Multilingual Practices conference. 22-24 November 2018. University of Tallinn, Estonia.

Poster presentation: Trilingual families in Helsinki, initial findings. Early Language Learning Conference 2018. 13-15 June 2018. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Photography presentation (awarded highly commended): Trilingual toddlers, translanguaging Teletubbies. Images of Research. 12 December 2017. Cardiff University, Wales.

Poster presentation: Trilingual children in Helsinki. Bilingual First Language Acquisition: Current theories and methodologies workshop. 4-5 December 2017. University of York, England.

Presentation: Trilingual families' language strategies. ESRC Cardiff Festival of Social Science seminar. 9 November 2017. Cardiff University, Wales.

Presentation: Kolmikieliset lapset Helsingissä. 17 August 2017. Department of Modern Languages, Helsinki University, Finland.

For a full list of public engagements and experience, please send me an email.


A comparative study of trilingual families in Helsinki and Cardiff areas: intergenerational language transmission experiences, influential factors for development of minority languages and children's perspectives

My thesis investigates trilingual children in two bilingual societies' capital city areas, Helsinki and Cardiff.

Observations, semi-structured interviews and self-administered questionnaires were conducted to answer the following questions:

  1. What are parents’ self-reported experiences of raising trilingual children and how are these experiences shaped by sociocultural factors in Helsinki and Cardiff?

  2. What are the children's perceptions of their identity, multilinguality and acquisition of their languages?

A cross-cultural, comparative multiple-case study design was used. After transcribing 26 hours of multilingual parents’ and children’s interviews, I coded and analysed the data using NVivo software. The reflexive thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke 2006), was chosen to keep a close link to the research questions and relevant literature reviewed in two literature reviews.


Dr Jonathan Morris

Senior Lecturer and Director of Postgraduate Research Studies