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Professor Jo Cable

Professor Jo Cable

Professor, Masters Lead

School of Biosciences

Email:
cablej@cardiff.ac.uk
Telephone:
+44 (0)29 2087 6022
Fax:
+44 (0)29 2087 4116
Location:
C5.16, Sir Martin Evans Building, Museum Avenue, Cardiff, CF10 3AX
Media commentator
Available for postgraduate supervision

As Chair of Parasitology, I work on host-parasite dynamics and the ecosystem impacts of invasive species. Much of this research (in silico, in vitro and in vivo) is based on aquatic systems, particularly fish parasites, which affect host behaviour, growth and performance, but my group also works on water-borne human pathogens and zoonotic infections. Identifying the factors that drive parasite transmission and spread of invasive species has direct applications for animal and human health, sustainable food sources and the pet trade.

Key research methodologies:

  • Experimental parasitology, cell culture and imaging.
  • Host genetic diversity, behaviour and parasite resistance.
  • Parasite molecular taxonomy and epidemiology.

For more details of my research see www.cripescardiff.co.uk

Internal Roles

  • BIOSI PGT Director
  • PGR Divisional Lead for Organisms and Environment
  • NERC FRESH CDT Training Lead
  • Athena Swan Committee
  • Academic Team Leader
  • Academic lead for Water, health and wellbeing

It was during my first degree in Biological Sciences at Westfield College, University of London, that I became interested in parasitology. My Ph.D. research at Queen Mary College, University of London, focused on the ecological adaptations of monogenean parasites. After two post-doctoral positions at the MRC in Nottingham (with Prof. Karen Steel) and the University of Bristol (with Prof. Richard Tinsley), I moved to Cardiff in 1999 to work on a range of projects concerned with host-parasite interactions, particularly monogenean reproduction and, more recently, population genetics. I have held three Research Fellowships, including a current NERC (Natural Environment Research Council) Advanced Fellowship, and in 2008 I was promoted to Reader.

I serve on the council of the British Society for Parasitology, act as an ad-hoc reviewer for 30 journals and various funding bodies, teach ecological parasitology to undergraduates at all levels and have examined eight PhD/MSc candidates.

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Undergraduate teaching:

  • Tropical Marine Ecology Field Course, module leader
  • BI1003 Organisms and Environment
  • BI2133 Ecology and Conservation - Part A
  • BI2134 Ecology and Conservation - Part B
  • BI3001 Final Year Research Projects
  • BI3155 Infection Biology and Epidemiology

Postgraduate teaching:

  • MSc, MRES and IM Research Projects
  • IAESTE and ERASMUS student Research Projects/Internships

We work on several host-parasite systems, combining experimental approaches in the field and lab with microscopy and molecular biology, to assess the factors controlling disease transmission. Much of our current research is focused on fish pathogens, utilising model systems: Gyrodactylus species infecting guppies or sticklebacks. For further details see www.cripescardiff.co.uk

Host factors influencing parasite transmission

Genetic diversity of hosts significantly impacts on parasite resistance (e.g. Ellison et al. 2011); therefore we have invested considerable time in documenting the diversity of wild guppy populations (Barson et al. 2009; Willing et al. 2010) in relation to their parasite fauna (reviewed by Cable 2011). Specifically, we know that host immunity influences all aspects of host-parasite dynamics (Cable & van Oosterhout 2007a). In vertebrates, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune defence against parasites. Low variation of MHC in both captive and natural fish populations has been associated with increased disease susceptibility (Blais et al. 2007). In guppies increased gyrodactylid burdens have been shown to reduce survival of individuals (van Oosterhout et al. 2007; Faria et al. 2010) and this selection may alter MHC allele frequencies both spatially and temporally. MHC also influences host mating preferences, so we are currently investigating how parasitism, and the interaction between visual and olfaction responses in fish affects mate choice. In a new collaboration with Dr Joe Jackson, we are investigating how other aspects of the fish's immune response are influenced by temperature in the presence of parasites.

Phenotypic variation in hosts is also important for disease dynamics. Host behavioural traits have been shown to affect transmission of infectious diseases in lab (e.g. Richards et al. 2010; Johnson et al. 2011) and field studies (e.g. Croft et al. 2011). We are currently taking this a stage further by investigating disease transmission in artificial flumes. In collaboration with the School of Engineering at Cardiff, we are assessing the trade-offs between fish swimming behaviour in complex environments vs. the risk of infection. In addition, a Marie Curie Fellow in the lab is investigating how fish temperament impacts on the transfer of directly transmitted pathogens.

Parasite traits influencing transmission

Most life history traits of parasites will impact on their transmission potential (Viney and Cable 2011); for Gyrodactylus species, an overriding factor is their unusual reproductive mode. These ectoparasitic worms are more akin to microparasites (such as viruses, bacteria and protozoans) rather than typical helminth macroparasites. Adult worms contain several generations of embryos boxed one inside another (like "Russian Dolls"). Each parasite gives birth to a fully grown worm which attaches to the host alongside its parent and this can lead to exponential population growth. The reproductive biology of Gyrodactylus is further complicated as different modes of reproduction (asexual, parthenogenesis and sexual) can all be involved in the life cycle. Schelkle et al. (2012a) have recently shown the importance of hybridization in mixed infections of gyrodactylids using novel microsatellite markers (Faria et al. 2010), which demonstrates, for the first time the occurrence of sexual recombination and hybrid vigour in monogeneans. Transmission between hosts is also influenced by host availability and the degree of parasite specialization (King and Cable 2007; King et al. 2008, 2009).

Environmental factors driving transmission

Since 2003, we have been conducting fieldwork in Trinidad and Tobago on the interactions between guppies and their parasites (Cable 2011). In extreme environments, such as the hydrocarbon rich conditions of the Pitch Lake, Trinidad, we have investigated how guppies avoid some gyrodactylid infections (Schelkle et al. 2012b). We have also shown how flooding can negatively impact upon the most heavily infected hosts (van Oosterhout et al. 2007). This is being tested further in the Cardiff labs using artificial flumes to precisely assess how water flow rates and turbulence might influence transmission of fish parasites. However, perhaps the most important factor affecting epidemics in managed host populations is the application of anti-parasitic treatments (e.g. Millet et al. 2010; Schelkle et al. 2009, 2010). We are particularly interested in finding alternative chemotherapeutics against the diplomonad protozoan, Spironucleus vortens (see review by Williams et al. 2012).

In terrestrial hosts, we are studying the effects of climate and habitat variables on parasite distributions of (i) rodents, collaboration with Dr Sarah Perkins, (ii) otters, joint study with Dr Liz Chadwick of the Cardiff University Otter Project, and (iii) primates, collaborations with Prof Mike Bruford and Dr Benoît Goossens.

Interplay between biotic and abiotic factors driving host-parasite dynamics

A range of empirical studies from Dr Cable's lab has illustrated the importance of host, parasite and environmental factors influencing host-parasite dynamics (e.g. Cable & van Oosterhout 2007b). These data have been used to develop an agent based model for gyrodactylids (van Oosterhout et al. 2008), which is currently being expanded in collaboration with colleagues at McGill University to assess the interplay between parasite infrapopulation growth and host immunity. However, all these advances in understanding the ecology and evolution of these pathogens has only become possible in the last decade due to advances in taxonomy of this specious family (e.g. Harris et al. 2008; Paladini et al. 2009, 2010; Schelkle et al. 2011; Shinn et al. 2010). These ectoparasitic monogenean worms are ubiquitous on teleost fish. Over 400 species have been described, but it is estimated that this number may exceed 20,000. With intensifying aquacultural practices, the unique colonization abilities and pathogenicity of gyrodactylids has resulted in major disease epidemics. One species alone, Gyrodactylus salaris, cost the Norwegian Salmon Industry >500 million € in the first 25 years since its introduction from the Baltic.

In collaboration with the Environment Agency and Natural Resources Wales, we are assessing the impact of native and invasive pathogens on both native (e.g. European eels) and invasive fish species (pumpkinseed; Hockley et al. 2011). For eels, this involves looking at multi-species interactions between Pseudodactylogyrus spp. and Anguillicoloides crassus. For otters, we are focussing on the potentially invasive digenean species parasites Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metorchis albidus, but also trying to identify their intermediate hosts in cyprinid fishes and snails using molecular methods. Finally, we have recently started working on the interactions between native and invasive crayfish species, and their branchiobdellid symbionts.

Current members of the Research Group

We host a range of international visitors and, each summer, train Erasmus, Nuffield and IAESTE (The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience) students; currently MSc students Kate Davidson and Rhidian Thomas.

We are always happy to discuss possibilities for PhD projects, postdoctoral work and collaborations. Possible funding routes include applying for fellowships, e.g. EU Marie Curie or Royal Society fellowships, or grant applications with you as a named postdoc.

Former members of the Research Group

Post-doctoral
  • Dr Gabrielle Archard - Personality, stress and parasitism
  • Dr Nicola Barson - Population genetics and behavioural ecology of guppies
  • Dr Stephen Casey - Genetic diversity of Leucochloridium spp.
  • Drs Stephen Cummings and Domino Joyce - Guppy MHC and parasite diversity
  • Dr Patricia J. Faria - Experimental infections and population genetics of gyrodactylid parasites
  • Dr Amy Ellison - AquaWales: Impact of fish diseases on Aquaculture
  • Dr Mireille Johnson - Morphology and population genetics of gyrodactylid parasites
  • Dr Marie Le Goff - Population genetics of gyrodactylid parasites
  • Dr Alberto Maceda-Veiga - The interaction between parasites and nitrates on fish hosts
  • Dr Simon Shayler - Culturing Ichthyophthirius multifilis
  • Dr Raquel Xavier - Molecular ecology of fish pathogens, particularly the spill over of parasites between farmed and wild fish

Collaborations

In addition to our work with Cardiff Infection Biologists, geneticists and freshwater biologists, we collaborate closely with other schools via the Cardiff Water Research Institute and other GW4 researchers via the Water Security Alliance. External collaborators include evolutionary biologists and applied scientists:

Grants

  • Environment Agency
  • European Commission
  • Fisheries Society of the British Isles (FSBI)
  • Leverhulme Trust
  • Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
  • Norwegian Research Council (NRC)
  • Waltham Foundation

    We are also grateful to Aquarian and Rolf C. Hagen for the provision of aquarium equipment and consumables.

I currently supervise/co-supervise the following PhD students:

Current supervision

Emily Matthews

Research student

Thomas Pennance

Research student

Numair Masud Profile photo

Numair Masud

Research student

Alice Jones profile photo

Alice Jones

Research student

Elisavet Arapi profile photo

Elissavet Arapi

Research student

Kathryn Whittey

Research student

Rhiannon Hunt profile photo

Rhiannon Hunt

Research student

Bozo Lugonja

Research student

Twumasi profile picture

Clement Twumasi

Research student

Neil Cook Profile Pic

Neil Cook

Research student

Scott MacAulay profile photo

Scott MacAulay

Research student

Anya Tober

Research student

Past projects

  • Oluwaseun Somoye (Cardiff University, Morgan E. Williams Scholarship, Oct 2015-Sept 2019), co-supervisor with Dr Jo Lello (Cardiff). Co-infection.
  • Rebekah Weatherhead (Aberystwyth University, NRN-LCEE studentship, Oct 2015-Sept 2019), external supervisor with Prof Sonia Consuegra (Swansea University), Dr Amy Ellison (Bangor University) and primary supervisor Prof Peter Brophy.
  • Katie Dunkley (Cardiff University, NERC studentship, Oct 2015-March 2019), shared primary supervison with Dr Perkins (Cardiff). External supervisor Dr Ioannou (Bristol)
  • Valentine Muhawenimana (Cardiff University School of Engineering, April 2015-March 2019), secondary supervisor to Dr Catherine Wilson.
  • Chloe Robinson (Swansea University, NRN-LCEE studentship, Oct 2015-Sept 2018), external supervisor with primary supervisor Prof Sonia Consuegra (Swansea University).
  • Becky Pawluk (Swansea University, NERC studentship, Oct 2014-Sept 2018), external supervisor with primary supervisor Prof Sonia Consuegra (Swansea University).
  • Rhidian Thomas (Cardiff University, Coleg Cymraeg, Oct 2014-Jan 2018), co-supervised by Dr Sian Griffiths Cardiff).
  • Willow Smallbone (Cardiff University, Leverhulme studentship, Oct 2014-Sept 2017), co-supervised by Prof van Oosterhout (UEA).
  • Mike Reynolds (Cardiff University funded, Oct 2014-Sept 2017), co-supervised by Dr Raquel Xavier (Portugal).
  • Ryan Mohammed (University of West Indies), UWI funded part-time student (Oct 2009-June 2017). External Supervisor with Prof van Oosterhout (UEA). Primary supervisors Drs Adesh Ramsubhag and Azad Mohammed, UWI.
  • Emily Maquire (UK Niemann-Pick disease Charity funded, Oct 2013-Sept 2017), primary supervisor Dr Emyr Lloyd-Jones, Cardiff University.
  • Alex Stewart (Cardiff University, Leverhulme funded tied studentship, Jan 2013-July 2016), co-supervised by Prof Joe Jackson, Salford University).
  • Jo James (Cardiff University, EAW funded Jan 2012-Dec 2015), co-supervised by Dr Vaughan (Cardiff) and Dr Young (formerly Natural Resources Wales).
  • Emma Gillingham (Italy and Cardiff University, Italian funded, co-supervisor with Dr Sarah Perkins). June 2011-May 2015.
  • Jessica Stephenson (Cardiff University, FSBI funded, co-supervised by Prof. Julian Partridge, Bristol University, and Prof Cock van Oosterhout, UEA). Oct 2011-May 2015.
  • Frances Hockley (Cardiff University, BBSRC Case Studentship, co-supervised by Dr   Catherine Wilson, ENGIN and Dr Matt Longshaw, Cefas). Oct 2010-Sept 2014.
  • Eleanor Sherrard-Smith (Cardiff University, NERC funded, co-supervised by Dr Liz   Chadwick). Oct 2009-June 2013.
  • Catrin Williams (Cardiff University, EPSRC funded, co-supervised by Dr Mike Coogan and Prof David Lloyd) Oct 2009-April 2013.
  • Rui Sá (Cardiff University and Lisbon University, co-supervisor with Prof. Mike   Bruford)
  • Bettina Schelkle (Cardiff University, BBSRC Feb 2008-March 2012 funded). 2008-2012.
  • Joanna Randall (Cardiff University, NERC funded, co-supervisor with Dr Jo Lello) 2008-2011.
  • E. Loys Richards (Cardiff University, NERC) 2006-2010.
  • Milena Salgado-Lynn (Cardiff University, Mexican National Council for Science and Technology  (CONACyT) funded, co-supervisor with Prof. Mike Bruford). 2006-2010.
  • Mark Mc-Mullan (Hull University, NERC, co-supervisor with Prof Cock van Oosterhout and Dr John Greenman). 2006-2010.
  • Coralie Millet (Cardiff University, Morgan Williams Scholarship funded, Oct 2005-2009, co-supervisor  with Prof. David Lloyd).
  • Rhys Jones (Cardiff University, part-time student, co-supervisor with Prof. Mike Bruford). 2003-2009 (part-time student).
  • Tracey King (Cardiff University, NERC funded) 2004-2008.
  • Katherine Dunbar (Cardiff University, NERC funded, co-supervisor with Prof. Mike Bruford) 2003-2007.
  • Fairus Jalil (Cardiff University, Malaysian funded, co-supervisor with Prof Mike Bruford) 2002-2006.
  • Emily Scott (Bristol University, BBSRC funded, post-graduate tutor with Prof. Richard Tinsley) 1997-2000.
  • Jeanne Pimenta (Bristol University, BBSRC funded, post-graduate tutor with Prof. Richard Tinsley) 1993-1997.