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 Anthony Craig

Anthony Craig

Research student, School of Law and Politics


I am a PhD candidate in the Department of Politics and International Relations at Cardiff University, and a member of the research school of the Peace Research Institute Oslo. I hold an MA (Hons) in History and Politics and an MRes in International Relations from the University of Glasgow. My PhD research investigates the proliferation of cyber warfare capabilities across the international system by using a new data set that I am building, with a strong focus on quantitative research methods. I am also a fellow of the newly created Centre for Internet and Global Politics at Cardiff University. 


Research interests

My interests are in the areas of power, technology, international security, and quantitative research methods. My current PhD research investigates the proliferation of cyber capabilities across the international system, and I am also working on a project looking at the relationship between technological power and weapons exports.

Peer reviewed articles:

  • Calderaro, A. and Craig, A. 2020. Transnational governance of cybersecurity: policy challenges and global inequalities in cyber capacity building. Third World Quarterly

  • Craig, A. and Valeriano, B. “Realism and Cyber Conflict: Security in the Digital Age”, in Realism: An Appraisal, E-International Relations,, January 2018

  • Craig, A. and Valeriano, B. “Power, Conflict, and Technology: Delineating Empirical Theories in a Changing World”, Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics, Oxford University Press, September 2017

  • Craig, A. and Valeriano, B. “Reacting to Cyber Threats: Protection and Security in the Digital Age”, Global Security and Intelligence Studies, June 2016

  • Craig, A. and Valeriano, B. “Conceptualizing Cyber Arms Races”, IEEE Proceedings for CCDCOE CyberCon, 8th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Cyber Power. Pgs. 141-158, May 2016

Unpublished manuscripts:

  • Craig, A., Early, B., Valeriano, B., and Renaud, K. "Measuring Technological Capabilities", presented at the Annual International Studies Association Convention, San Francisco, CA. 5 April 2018. 

Other articles:

  • Craig, A. "Understanding the Proliferation of Cyber Capabilities", Council on Foreign Relations - Net Politics,, October 2018

  • Craig, A. and Valeriano, B. “How to Think About a State’s Cyber Capabilities”, Council on Foreign Relations - Net Politics,, December 2016

  • Craig, A. and Valeriano, B. “The Scottish Foreign Policy Context: Investigating Possible Divergent Preferences”, Scottish Global Forum,, June 2014


  • Introduction to Political Science

  • Introduction to International Relations

  • Digital Technology and Global Politics

  • Cybersecurity: Diplomacy and Digital Rights in Global Politics


Quantifying National Cyber Capabilities

Cyber security threats have grown dramatically as a result of increasing ICT dependence since the information revolution. As governments worldwide prepare for conflict in cyberspace, they are engaged in a so called 'cyber arms race' by stockipiling malware, creating cyber warfare agencies, developing cyber security strategies, increasing cyber security budgets, and hiring hundreds of 'cyber warriors'. Yet there has been little empirical analysis of these developments in the field of international relations. My goal is therefore to develop a quantitative measure of national cyber power, and to build a data set accounting for the rapid build up of cyber capabilities by states across the international system. I then use this data set to investigate the factors that drive the proliferation of cyber capabilities and its implications for international security. 

Funding source

School of Law and Politics


Campbell Craig

Professor Campbell Craig

Professor of International Relations


Dr Andrea Calderaro

Senior Lecturer in International Relations