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Nor Azlida Mohd Nor

Research student, School of Dentistry


Effect of changes of fluoride level in the water supply on oral health

Water fluoridation has been acknowledged as an effective measure in preventing dental caries. However excessive fluoride exposure is associated with the risk of developing fluorosis. Fluorosis appears as white patches on the tooth surfaces and to a certain extent is aesthetically unpleasant. Malaysia began its national fluoridation programme in 1972 with optimum level of 0.7ppmF and the level has been reduced to 0.5ppmF in 2005. Our research aims to evaluate the effect of the adjustment in fluoride levels in the public water supply in relation to dental caries and fluorosis. Apart from that, we also want to know the impact of exposure to fluoride from other sources such as toothpaste and infant formula.


Professor Ivor Chestnutt

Professor and Hon. Consultant in Dental Public Health, Director Postgraduate Studies, Interim Director Dental Clinical Board

Barbara Chadwick

Professor Barbara Chadwick

Director of Education & Students, Deputy Head of School, Professor of Paediatric Dentistry