Ewch i’r prif gynnwys
Dr Carly May Bliss

Dr Carly May Bliss

Wellcome Trust ISSF Fellow

Yr Ysgol Meddygaeth

Adeilad Henry Wellcome ar gyfer Ymchwil Biofeddygol, Ysbyty Athrofaol Cymru, Parc y Mynydd Bychan, Caerdydd, CF14 4XN
Ar gael fel goruchwyliwr ôl-raddedig


My research interests include vaccine development and the identification of protective immune subsets, with a focus on Universal vaccine development against influenza virus. Universal vaccines aim to protect against multiple viral strains and subtypes, without the need for annual vaccine re-formulation and re-administration. This is achieved thorugh induction of broadly reactive adaptive immune responses targeting conserved viral proteins. My current research uses novel adenoviral vectors as vaccines to direct potent immune responses against conserved regions of influenza virus. I believe the key concepts and developments from the Universal influenza vaccine field can be effectively applied to that of coronavirus vaccine development, and is a key focus of mine going forwards.


I completed a BA in Biological Sciences at the University of Oxford, and subsequently worked as a Research Assistant at the University’s Jenner Institute where I performed extensive immunological testing of human peripheral blood T cells as part of clinical vaccine trials against malaria. This included multiple overseas placements at MRC laboratories in The Gambia and Wellcome Trust laboratories in Kenya, in addition to rapid response clinical testing of Ebola virus vaccines during the 2014 outbreak.

My PhD focussed on immune responses to vaccines against malaria, specifically using poxviral and chimpanzee adenoviral vectored vaccines. My research explored the immune responses induced in both adult and paediatric cohorts following vaccination. This included the development of a novel in vitro assay to measure CD8+ T cell killing of malaria-infected hepatocytes and a fully validated whole blood intracellular cytokine staining assay for roll-out at clinical vaccine testing field sites in Africa.  

A shift of focus as a Postdoctoral Research Scientist led me to evaluate adaptive cellular responses following clinical administration of candidate vaccines against hepatitis C virus, with particular focus on T cell phenotype and proliferation, in addition to pre-clinical animal model development. A Postdoctoral Research Fellow position at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital (New York) furthered my interest in viral pathogens, with particular focus on influenza A virus. My pre-clinical research explored the use of human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-based vaccine vectors to induce broadly reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against the influenza hemagglutinin as an approach for Universal influenza vaccine development. My research extended to the evaluation of human T cell responses following “chimeric inactivated” and “chimeric live-attenuated” Universal influenza vaccine candidates undergoing Phase I clinical testing.   

At Cardiff University, I am funded by a Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Fund (ISSF) Fellowship for pre-clinical Universal vaccine development against influenza virus. My research aims to induce broadly cross-reactive humoral and cellular immune responses against conserved regions of the influenza viral haemagglutinin. Specifically I utilise rare species adenoviral vectors with low seroprevalence and Ad5-based vector pseudotypes, which aim to circumvent pre-existing adenovirus immunity from highly seroprevalent adenoviruses such as Ad1, Ad2, Ad5, whilst inducing broadly protective adaptive immune responses against multiple influenza virus subtypes with a single vaccination regimen. My interests include the identification of functional immune subsets within the lung mucosa that can be induced by vaccination and which underpin protection from infection and disease.

Through my ISSF fellowship, I work closely with many research groups within the School of Medicine, particularly those from the Division of Cancer and Genetics, which assist with adenoviral vector development and engineering, and from the Division of Infection and Immunity, for vaccine evaluation and immunological phenotyping.

Awards and Honours

  • Awarded 2020 Best ECR Oral Presentation at Cardiff University Division of Infection & Immunity Annual Meeting.
  • Elected in 2020 as an ECR on the board of the British Society for Gene and Cell Therapy.
  • Awarded 2020 Centre of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) Training Grant.
  • Awarded 2019 Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Vaccines Travel Grant.
  • Awarded 2019 MDPI Antibodies Excellent Young Researcher Certificate.
  • Awarded 2014-2019 British Society for Immunology International Travel Grants.
  • Awarded 2016 scholarship for Molecular Approaches to Malaria conference (Lorne, Australia)
  • Awarded 2013 scholarship for Ceppellini Advanced School of Immunology meeting (Naples, Italy).
  • Regular manuscript reviewer for a range of peer-reviewed journals.


Professional Memberships                

  • Member of British Society for Gene and Cell Therapy, including role as ECR Board member.
  • Member of Microbiology Society                                                                         
  • Member of British Society for Immunology   














  • Plan and supervise undergraduate student projects.
  • Plan and supervise PhD student projects.
  • Provide PhD student feedback as part of ECR-PhD student pairing programme.

Adenoviral Vector Development

Adenoviruses can be used as vaccine vectors, whereby a transgene is selected based on a specific antigen from a pathogen of interest. Following inoculation with the adenoviral vectored vaccine, the transgene is expressed at a high level, leading to the generation of potent immune responses against the encoded antigen. Pre-existing immunity to human adenoviruses can hinder this type of vaccine platform, and is a therefore a key consideration when developing viral vectored vaccines. My novel research explores the use of rare species adenoviruses and viral pseudotypes to induce potent immune response against the vaccine antigen whilst circumventing pre-existing immunity against the vaccine vector. Rare species adenoviruses have low seroprevalence in the human population, while viral pseudotypes aim to avoid pre-existing immunity via modifications to immunodominent capsid proteins. These two approaches underpin my vaccine development research. 

Universal Influenza Virus Vaccines

Universal influenza virus vaccines aim to protect against multiple viral strains and subtypes through the induction of broadly reactive immune responses. This can be achieved by targeting conserved infliuenza virus proteins, with the aim of generating influenza virus vaccines that do not require annual vaccine re-formulation and re-administration. My research aims to target the conserved portion of the influenza viral haemaggluinin (HA), termed the HA stalk domain, using noval adenoviral vectors. This approach should negate the issues associated with egg-based influenza vaccine production and the uncertainty associated with matching influenza vaccine strains to the seasonal circulating strains. 

My Research Goals

  1. Generating rare species adenoviral (Ad) vectors and Ad vector pseudotypes encoding conserved influenza virus antigens, to induce broad immune responses against multiple influenza virus subtypes, whilst circumventing pre-existing Ad-based immunity. 
  2. Evaluating mucosal and systemic immune responses against conserved influenza antigens, through quantification and phenotyping of antibody and T cell responses in lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, peripheral blood and the spleen, and elucidating their functional profile and mechanisms of action.
  3. Mapping immune responses down to specific T cell epitopes and antibody binding sites, and determining the level of cross-reactivity and protective capacity against different influenza virus subtypes, using both in vivo and ex vivo experimentation.  
  4. Appliying the Universal vaccine approach from influenza vaccine development to that of coronavirus vaccines.  


I am currently an Early Career Representative on the Board of the British Society for Gene and Cell Therapy (BSGCT) and participate actively in the society’s work, particularly that of Early Career Development and Collaboration with the organisation of the current BSGCT Early Career Researcher (ECR) seminar series. I am also on the Network for Researcher Development (NeRD) Organising Committee, which organises ECR events and aims to improve the research experiences of ECRs within the Division of Cancer and Genetics at Cardiff University.