History, Archaeology and Religious Studies

Learn more about the modules study abroad students can take at the School of History, Archaeology and Religion.

Due to demand, priority for these modules will be given to incoming exchange students majoring in this discipline.

Module codeHS0001
LevelL4
SemesterDouble Semester
Credits20

Ancient forms of religion were vibrant and dynamic traditions that were deeply integrated into the societies which practiced them, impacting nearly every realm of life and thought. This module introduces students to the fundaments of ancient religions by examining the unique religious traditions of several different cultures and geographical regions in antiquity. Across these different cultures, students will consider the relationship between religion and social organisation, empire, gender, sexuality, and economy in different ancient contexts. A wide variety of primary materials will be covered, including the physical remains of religious sites and artefacts as well as a vast array of literary sources. The module will consider how different cultures conceived of their deities and their own relationship to them, how religion informed morality and other social concepts, and how humanity interacted with the divine during life and after death.  

Assessment

  • Written assessment: 50%
  • Written assessment: 50%
Module codeHS0002
LevelL4
SemesterDouble Semester
Credits20

This module explores the relationship between film, television and other forms of media and the subjects which make up SHARE’s key disciplines: history, ancient history, archaeology and conservation, and religion.

Every type of written history – be it biography, religious hagiography or archaeological report - is a product of processes of condensation, displacement, symbolization, and qualification. Film theorists would argue that exactly the same processes are used in the production of filmed representation. It is only the medium that differs, not the way in which the messages are produced. This course explores how the film process engages with the past and present, exploring both media which can be classified as historical data (propaganda films, commercials and advertisements, newsreels, etc) and the process of creating history through media (Hollywood movies, European cinema, TV broadcasting, Hindi cinema, etc).

The module encourages students to think about the ways the present-day media creates and exploits diverse images of history and faith while helping them to understand how film can be used as a source for the study of history, archaeology and religion. 

Assessment

  • Written assessment: 50%
  • Examination - spring semester: 50%
Module codeHS1005
LevelL4
SemesterAutumn Semester
Credits10

This module is intended to provide you with an introduction to the modern and contemporary periods of world history.  By adopting a European and global perspective, the module aims to provide you with a broad knowledge and understanding of the main political, economic, social and cultural factors that have shaped the modern world.  Individual themes – the impact of industrialism, the nature and impact of nationalism, imperialism and decolonization, women and gender, culture and representation, war and peace – are explored in the context of several countries or regions of the world.  This comparative approach will not only deepen your understanding of the making of the modern world, and how historians have written about modern world history, but also highlight the interconnected nature of the development of societies and peoples in different locations.  The geographical range – a distinctive feature of this module – encompasses many countries of Western Europe as well as Asia and Africa.

Assessment

  • Written assessment: 100%
Module codeHS1006
LevelL4
SemesterAutumn Semester
Credits10

This module serves as an introduction to early modern English and Welsh history. As Wales and England were united as a political unit at this time, a comparative perspective is essential to a study of the nature and scope of the Tudor and Stuart state and the lives of the people – both rich and poor – who lived within it. This comparative approach will deepen your understanding of why things happened the way they did, and will allow you to explore the differences and similarities between different social and cultural groups within both Wales and England as well as between national groups.  Larger themes run through these topics and will be considered throughout the course: the extent to which the early modern period experienced a transition from ‘tradition’ towards ‘modernity’; the extent to which a process of social and cultural polarisation occurred, separating the better-off from their poorer neighbours; and the nature of political, cultural, linguistic, and ethnic relationships within the British Isles.

Assessment

  • Written assessment: 100%
Module codeHS1007
LevelL4
SemesterSpring Semester
Credits10

Assessment

  • Written assessment: 100%
Module codeHS1008
LevelL4
SemesterAutumn Semester
Credits10

Assessment

    Module codeHS1009
    LevelL4
    SemesterSpring Semester
    Credits10

    Assessment

      Module codeHS1010
      LevelL4
      SemesterSpring Semester
      Credits10

      This module is designed to provide an introduction to some of the key themes in modern and contemporary world history, covering the period approximately 1750-1945. The geographic focus will be Europe and the Americas, but the thematic structure of the module will provide understanding of the main political, social, economic and cultural factors that have shaped the modern world more broadly. The module will prepare students, conceptually and methodologically, for more in-depth study of various aspects of modern (and not just modern) history in the subsequent years of their degrees. Students will engage with questions of period, such as ‘What made the modern world distinctly modern?’, and they will engage with complex but fascinating questions about how ideas and technologies migrate across borders in an increasingly interconnected, transnational world. However, does the ‘modern’ era of history mean that the world as a whole is uniformly ‘modern’?

      Lectures and seminars will adhere to a coherent thematic structure, but some will have more specific geographic focus. The study of modern history is one of major developments and revolutions in ideas, politics, social relations, cultural forms and technology. It is a story of dramatic leaps in human progress, but it is also a story with some of the most horrifying chapters of human history. Engagement with the complexities, contradictions, and contingencies that have shaped the modern world, as well as with the major challenges and alternatives to the dominant ways in which we live, will challenge students to think deeply and with historical awareness about the world around them

      Assessment

        Module codeHS1105
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module is designed to provide an introduction to some of the key themes in modern history, covering the period approximately 1750-1945. These themes cover a wide range of topics in political, social, cultural, economic, and intellectual history. These include political revolutions and social changes; industrialization; developments in public health and infrastructure; the rise of the nation-state; the significance of imperialist expansion; wars and mass violence; and changes in how people have identified themselves in relation to wider society. In the course of this module, you will learn to think deeply about the world you inhabit and the human forces that have shaped it. You will also be introduced to how historians specifically, and academics generally, think and work.

        Assessment

        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeHS1106
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        As Wales and England were united as a political unit at this time, a comparative perspective is essential to a study of the nature and scope of the Tudor and Stuart state and the lives of the people - both rich and poor - who lived within it. You will explore the differences and similarities between different social and cultural groups within both Wales and England as well as between national groups. Topics include the household, oral and print culture, music, magic and superstition, poverty, riot, crime, and political and religious radicalism, as well as events and processes concerning the Acts of Union, the Reformation, the civil wars, and republican rule. Larger themes run through these topics: the extent to which the early modern period experienced a transition from 'tradition' towards 'modernity'; the extent to which a process of social and cultural polarisation occurred, separating the better-off from the poor; and the nature of political, cultural, linguistic, and ethnic relationships within the British Isles. Modules will be taught through a mixture of lectures, with seminars, field trips and use of video film and documentary materials in certain modules.

        Assessment

        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeHS1108
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module provides an introduction to the modern and contemporary histories of Asia including India, China and Japan. Western representations of Asia are filled with exotic images of Shangri La, Geisha, Samurai and snake charmers, yet in the present day, the twenty-first century is often described as the ‘Asian century’. This module attempts to familiarize students with major themes in the history of a diverse, yet interconnected continent.  Mainly focusing on the last two and half centuries (ca.1757-ca.2000), we will trace the historical processes of imperialism, colonialism, and nationalism and the attendant process of globalization in India, China and Japan. Asia and the West, have deep connections going back in historical time. We will examine the transformations Asian peoples underwent as a result of their interaction with Western colonialism, and the different strategies of resistance adopted by them to overcome and/or adapt to the changes they confronted.  Asian interaction with the West created three very different forms of political, economic and ideological systems in the three Asian societies under scrutiny. The module seeks to analyse the historical processes that led to the emergence of a popular communist leadership in China, an elite liberal-democratic leadership in India and an oligarchy devoted to the market economy in Japan. Exploring the similarities and differences in the experience of Japan, China and India, this course compels students to reflect on the factors that link Asian societies and histories together, and those that make them distinct. The class will follow a lecture-seminar discussion format.  To gain diverse perspectives, various types of readings are utilised such as primary sources in English and in translation, alongside fictional works and scholarly interpretations of Asian societies. Where possible, visual aids such as films, trips to museums and guest lectures are integrated in order to explore and deepen students’ understanding of Asian history and culture. No prior knowledge of Asia is required.

        History in Practice Part 1

        This course introduces you to the different frameworks which underpin historical research and the many different ways of writing history, while providing training in the skills necessary to practice history at undergraduate level. The module is taught through a range of case studies from different chronological periods. By the end of the module, you will not only understand why historians disagree, but you will have developed a set of practical skills that will enable you to participate in these debates, and to disagree with the historians you are reading (and perhaps with your tutors as well!)

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1109
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        What is a nation? Can nations exist without a state? Are nations created only in the imaginations of citizens? The purpose of this module is to explore how nations are shaped by economic, social, political and cultural forces. It will examine how national identities can be shaped by political parties, popular movements, historians and the heritage industry. People’s own attachment to place will be crucial in understanding how imagined histories, and historical processes, shaped protest and political movements. This module explores the identity and the social and political struggles of a minority people – members of a stateless nation, living within a multi-national state. It will explore how economic factors, language, religion, culture, education, philosophical values and politics played a role in shaping their consciousness and their history. It will ask how the ideas of oppression or suppression as well as difference could themselves be invented. An important component of the module will focus upon the heritage industry to ask how popular history plays a role in shaping and defining identity. You will be challenged to critically consider how you might present national histories to the public. The nation which forms the module’s subject matter is the nation in which you are currently living: Wales. The module will provide a case study for exploring questions of national identity and nation making, which will enable you to think more widely about the crucial theme of nations and nationalism in the modern world. No prior knowledge of Wales is necessary; all you need is an imagination and a willingness to engage in the immediate world around you.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Portfolio: 50%
        Module codeHS1112
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        Spanning 1000 years, this module will take students on a time-travelling journey around the world of the middle ages: north, east, south and west. The Medieval era is sometimes regarded as the relatively backward period that links the golden age of classical civilisation with the technological dynamism of the modern era. Yet far from being a backwater of history, the Medieval period was a time of rapid social, economic and cultural change. It saw the rise of towns, trade routes and new technologies; witnessed tumultuous conflicts and innovative warrior elites; saw clashes of faith and heresy. It was a time of new learning and ways of thinking about the world; an era of cultural expansion, exploration and settlement. Old certainties were challenged and in the encounter of cultures new vistas of knowledge and geographical expansion opened. Modern states and governments began to form, and the old empires crumbled. Taking a global approach and encompassing the disciplines of history, archaeology and religion, this module draws on original records and commentaries, artefacts and visual evidence, employing a series of exciting case studies to explore these vibrant medieval Worlds.

        Assessment

        • Portfolio: 30%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Presentation: 40%
        Module codeHS1201
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        From 1000 onwards religious dissent became more prominent in Europe. Some religious movements were seen as such a threat to social stability that the authorities went to great lengths to crush them, resorting to crusades, inquisitions and burning those who refused to recant their beliefs. This module will seek to contextualise these movements within the society from which they came and to examine the impact they made on that society. It will also examine who became involved in such movements and explore reasons for their involvement. Why were so many women attracted to heresy? Why did religious dissent become such a problem for the ecclesiastical and lay authorities and why were those authorities unable to counter that problem effectively? The module will focus on certain large-scale movements such as the Cathars of S. France and the Albigensian Crusade which set out to crush them.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1202
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        During the period 1200–1450 religious dissent was prominent in Europe. Some religious movements were seen as such a threat to social stability that the authorities went to great lengths to crush them, resorting to crusades, inquisitions and burning those who refused to recant their beliefs. This course will seek to contextualise these movements within the society from which they came and to examine the impact that they made on that society. It will also examine who became involved in such movements and explore reasons for their involvement. Why were so many women attracted to heresy? Why did religious dissent become such a problem for the ecclesiastical and lay authorities and why were those authorities unable to counter that problem effectively? The course will focus on certain large-scale movements such as the Rhineland mystics; the Lollards of England; the Hussites of Bohemia and the disastrously unsuccessful crusades launched against them. It concludes by looking forward to the Reformation and asks how far the European heresies before 1450 contributed to the religious and philosophical revolution of the sixteenth century.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1203
        LevelL5
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        Today’s China is widely perceived as an economic powerhouse and a crucial player in Asia and the international arena. However, China’s path to both economic and political prominence has been long and tortuous. The history of modern China provides an exciting and challenging platform for discussing key themes in modern history such as empire and imperialism, nationalism, revolution and state building. This module will discuss the pivotal events in Chinese modern history by laying emphasis on China’s quest for modernity, the interaction/confrontation with the outside world and the centrality of ideology. The module will explore topics such as the transition from imperial to Republican China, the impact of western imperialism on Chinese state and society, the ideological roots and the implementation of the Communist revolution, the impact and consequences of the War against Japan, and the Civil War.

         

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1204
        LevelL5
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        Today’s China is widely perceived as an economic powerhouse and a crucial player in Asia and the international arena. However, China’s path to both economic and political prominence has been long and tortuous. This module will discuss the pivotal events in Chinese modern history by laying emphasis on China’s quest for modernity, the centrality of ideology, and China’s economic development. This module will focus on post-1949 by discussing the Chinese Communist Party’s vision for new China in the 1950s, the unfolding of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping’s reform era, and China in the last decade.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1205
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        The period between 1750 and 1914 has commonly been associated with the rise of modern medicine. In this period anaesthetics and antiseptics were introduced; x-rays and antitoxins were discovered; hospitals and asylums became ‘medicalized’; and medicine and nursing took on an increasingly professional structure. This module explores how there was more to the rise of “modern” medicine than heroic discoveries, great men and women, and scientific progress. It examines the nature of medicine, health and disease through a study of medicine’s impact on patients, communities, society and disease, and places the transitions in medicine within the wider context of nineteenth-century British history.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1206
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        The period between 1750 and 1914 has commonly been associated with the rise of modern medicine. In this period anaesthetics and antiseptics were introduced; x-rays and antitoxins were discovered; hospitals and asylums became ‘medicalized’; and medicine and nursing took on an increasingly professional structure. This module explores how there was more to the rise of “modern” medicine than heroic discoveries, great men and women, and scientific progress. It places medicine within the wider context of nineteenth-century British history to examine the contested nature of medicine, how medicine was represented and understood both by medical professionals and by patients and communities, looks at ideas of opposition, and how medicine contributed to wider debates about the nature of society.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1209
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module is designed to provide a critical introduction to the political, economic, social and cultural history of India from the assumption of direct rule by the Crown to the beginnings of serious nationalist agitation in early twentieth century India. The module follows a broadly chronological framework along major themes which include – the consolidation of British rule after 1857; rebellion and resistance by Indians including subordinated groups; the growth of religious based identities leading to separatist movements in early twentieth century. The course also introduces students to various historiographical schools on various topics of relevance to the course. The study of the Indian economy, politics and society will be useful for students planning an in-depth study of the sub-continent. No prior knowledge of the subject is assumed.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1210
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        This module is designed to provide a critical introduction to the political, economic, social and cultural history of India from the beginnings of religious based identities and the rise of nationalism in the late nineteenth century to the gaining of independence in 1947. The module follows a broadly chronological framework along major themes which include – the rebellion and resistance by Indians including subordinated groups; the emergence of the colonial economy; changes in the role and status of women; socio-religious and revivalist movements; the nationalist movement; and the growth of communal identities and partition. The module also introduces students to various historiographical schools on various topics of relevance to the course. The study of the Indian economy, politics and society will be useful for students planning an in-depth study of the sub-continent. No prior knowledge of the subject is assumed.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1213
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module explores the nature of the disorienting social, economic and political changes which affected Welsh society between 1939 and 2000. It examines the impact of the sexual revolution, the Americanization of popular culture, the rebirth of political nationalism and the foundation of the welfare state against the backdrop of a rapidly-changing economy. Through photographs, films, oral testimonies, literature and newspapers, the module questions the historical reality behind popular perceptions of a period that continues to be fiercely debated. Was Welsh society swinging in the sixties? What was the impact of post-war immigration? Did women gain equality? Were ‘family values’ undermined? This module will address such questions through key themes including identity, class and gender, and will place the experience of Wales within a broader British and international context

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1214
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        This module explores the nature of the disorienting social, economic and political changes which affected Welsh society between 1939 and 2000. It examines the impact of the sexual revolution, the Americanization of popular culture, the rebirth of political nationalism and the foundation of the welfare state against the backdrop of a rapidly-changing economy. Through photographs, films, oral testimonies, literature and newspapers, the module questions the historical reality behind popular perceptions of a period that continues to be fiercely debated. Was Welsh society swinging in the sixties? What was the impact of post-war immigration? Did women gain equality? Were ‘family values’ undermined? This module will address such questions through key themes including identity, class and gender, and will place the experience of Wales within a broader British and international context.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1217
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        In the mid-seventeenth century England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland were engulfed in a destructive and transformative civil war. This module examines this remarkable period in an innovative fashion by considering the British dimension of the conflict. This charts how developments in Scotland and Ireland as well as England and Wales are crucial to understanding the origins and progress of conflict. The course thus considers episodes such as the nature and impact of the Scottish Covenanters who rose against their king in 1638, as well as events such as the bloody Irish Rebellion of 1641 which speeded England’s descent into Civil War. It also explores recent interpretations of the conflict as an ‘ethnic’ war by examining attitudes towards cultures such as the Welsh and Cornish, and examines the aggressive Englishness of a figure like Oliver Cromwell. In addition to this multi-kingdom perspective, the module also pays particular attention to the cultural and social impact of war in England and Wales. It explores the newly-expanded world of print and propaganda in this ‘first age of journalism’, drawing on the explosion of news and propaganda which competed for readership in a much-expanded public sphere. It examines the impact of war on the literary culture of the period through authors like John Milton and Robert Herrick. It considers the radical political groups like the Levellers and Diggers who argued that a more democratic society should rise from the ruins of Charles I’s kingdoms. It also charts the effect of war on questions of gender and the role of women, as fiery female preachers and prophetesses gained space for new expression in the turmoil of war. The module deals with one of the most exciting and absorbing periods of British History when the fault lines between kingdoms and communities released forces which ultimately saw the king executed and a pan-British Republic established by the force of Cromwell’s New Model Army.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1218
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        In the mid-seventeenth century England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland were engulfed in a destructive and transformative civil war. This module examines this remarkable period in an innovative fashion by considering the British dimension of the conflict. This charts how developments in Scotland and Ireland as well as England and Wales are crucial to understanding the origins and progress of conflict. The course thus considers episodes such as the nature and impact of the Scottish Covenanters who rose against their king in 1638, as well as events such as the bloody Irish Rebellion of 1641 which speeded England’s descent into Civil War. It also explores recent interpretations of the conflict as an ‘ethnic’ war by examining attitudes towards cultures such as the Welsh and Cornish, and examines the aggressive Englishness of a figure like Oliver Cromwell. In addition to this multi-kingdom perspective, the module also pays particular attention to the cultural and social impact of war in England and Wales. It explores the newly-expanded world of print and propaganda in this ‘first age of journalism’, drawing on the explosion of news and propaganda which competed for readership in a much-expanded public sphere. It examines the impact of war on the literary culture of the period through authors like John Milton and Robert Herrick. It considers the radical political groups like the Levellers and Diggers who argued that a more democratic society should rise from the ruins of Charles I’s kingdoms. It also charts the effect of war on questions of gender and the role of women, as fiery female preachers and prophetesses gained space for new expression in the turmoil of war. The module deals with one of the most exciting and absorbing periods of British History when the fault lines between kingdoms and communities released forces which ultimately saw the king executed and a pan-British Republic established by the force of Cromwell’s New Model Army.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1219
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module will examine the history of popular movements in Britain in the period of the industrial revolution and its aftermath. It will begin with an examination of the process and nature of industrialisation. Questions will be raised about the social effects of industrialisation, including its impact upon living standards, gender relations, the labour process and class structure. Having established the socio-economic context, the module will then examine the various popular movements and ideologies that developed during the period, including the Corresponding Societies of the 1790s, subsequent movements for political reform, industrial movements such as Luddism and trade unionism, Owenism and early socialism and Chartism. A range of questions will be explored: How revolutionary were such movements, and why did Britain escape the revolutionary convulsions that affected other European countries? What were the main ideological characteristics of these movements? Is it possible to perceive ideological continuities through the period? To what extent were such movements ‘national’ and how did various parts of the British Isles relate to one another through them?

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1223
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        The twentieth century was a turbulent period in French history. The French experienced victory and defeat in war, foreign occupation, change in political regime, civil unrest and near revolution in 1936, 1945 and 1968, the demise of their empire and integration into the European Union. The course provides a broad introduction to the major political, social and cultural turning points in the period and examines some of the major themes that shape the period as a whole (such as immigration, the birth-rate, class conflict and economic modernisation).

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1224
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        The twentieth century was a turbulent period in French history. The French experienced victory and defeat in war, foreign occupation, change in political regime, civil unrest and near revolution in 1936, 1945 and 1968, the demise of their empire and integration into the European Union. The course provides a broad introduction to the major political, social and cultural turning points in the period and examines some of the major themes that shape the period as a whole (such as immigration, the birth-rate, class conflict and economic modernisation).

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1227
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        The centuries between 1100 and 1500 witnessed a transformation in European society as its population trebled, hundreds of new towns and cities appeared while existing settlements expanded, and an international banking system emerged. Yet not every social group reaped the benefits of economic prosperity, rapid urbanisation and cultural renaissance. This module will examine the material conditions of the poor, sick and needy in medieval society, focusing primarily on Europe between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. From the labouring poor in towns and rural areas to mobile beggars and the destitute sick, the experience of poverty differed according to region, life-cycle and gender. The responses of the Church and state to poverty shifted across this period, with authorities reacting differently to population growth and disease. The Church provided much relief through hospitals, charity and alms-giving, yet sermons and debates over the meaning of poverty indicate complex religious attitudes towards the poor. The plague epidemics that began in 1347 were accompanied by a host of other devastating diseases, which wrought their worst havoc on the urban poor who lacked the economic resources of social elites. Throughout the module, we will consider the experience of poverty, how authorities identified and sought to control the poor, and how the destitute coped in everyday life. The unit will explore a range of sources from miracle tales, legal records, chronicles, sermons and archaeological evidence.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1228
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        The centuries between 1100 and 1500 witnessed a transformation in European society as its population trebled, hundreds of new towns and cities appeared while existing settlements expanded, and an international banking system emerged. Yet not every social group reaped the benefits of economic prosperity, rapid urbanisation and cultural renaissance. This module will examine the material conditions of the poor, sick and needy in medieval society, focusing primarily on Europe between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. From the labouring poor in towns and rural areas to mobile beggars and the destitute sick, the experience of poverty differed according to region, life-cycle and gender. The responses of the Church and state to poverty shifted across this period, with authorities reacting differently to population growth and disease. The Church provided much relief through hospitals, charity and alms-giving, yet sermons and debates over the meaning of poverty indicate complex religious attitudes towards the poor. The plague epidemics that began in 1347 were accompanied by a host of other devastating diseases, which wrought their worst havoc on the urban poor who lacked the economic resources of social elites. Throughout the module, we will consider the experience of poverty, how authorities identified and sought to control the poor, and how the destitute coped in everyday life. The unit will explore a range of sources from miracle tales, legal records, chronicles, sermons and archaeological evidence

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1230
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        This module considers Japan’s twentieth century. The Russo-Japanese war at the very start of the century marked Japan’s ascent to join the great powers, the crowning achievement of a revolutionary transformation during the second half of the 19th century. However it also highlighted the possibility that social reforms were lagging the diplomatic and military successes. The 1920s were a period of relative liberalism, but they were followed by the ‘dark valley’ of militarism and the disaster of World War Two. Finally, the post-war period saw the second rise of Japan, this time as an economic powerhouse without a military dimension.

        This tumultuous history reveals that Japan was subjected to many of the same events and trends as European nations, but within a different context. As a result, we can look at Japan’s twentieth century not only on its own terms, but also within a global setting and with a comparative perspective, seeking broader lessons for the experience of modernity and the wider world.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1231
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        The transformation in Japan during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was remarkable both for its breadth and its rapidity. In the space of a few decades, a tradition-bound society governed by the samurai class of sword carrying warrior-bureaucrats was replaced by an industrialising modern nation-state built along a western model. Increasing contact with the west touched all elements of society: politics, culture, thought, and even daily life. Rather than a straightforward narrative of modernisation, however, the picture which emerges is a complex and ambiguous one, with new ideas inspiring competing visions of Japan's future and its position in the wider world.

        This module considers the modern history of Japan from the nineteenth century – the late Tokugawa period and the Meiji Restoration – up to World War Two, the occupation era, and beyond. The focus will be on cultural and intellectual history, but along the way we will evaluate models and concepts which have been used in the interpretation of Japanese history, as well as encountering familiar events from unfamiliar perspectives, and seeking to ask what Japan’s experiences can tell us of the broader modern world.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1240
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        Historically, the European continent has constituted an exceedingly cosmopolitan and multi-national region consisting of various cultures, peoples and languages. Only following the devastating impact of war, ethnic cleansing and genocide in the mid-twentieth century did continental Europe become organized into hermetic national enclaves roughly corresponding to the realities of modern nation-states. This course will assess the ways in which European states over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries contended with cultural pluralism and diversity in an age of national identification. Starting with the growth of nationalist ideologies during the French Revolution and Napoleonic period, the module will examine how nationalism impacted continental societies through assessments of identity politics, imperial conquest and understandings of cosmopolitanism in both national and imperial contexts. Throughout the semester, students will be asked to assess a variety of polities spanning from France and Germany to borderland regions in the Ottoman Balkans and Slavic periphery and be expected to analyze processes of identity formation, ethnic violence and nation building in comparative contexts. The course will conclude with an examination of the current shift in Europe’s cultural geography spurred by postcolonial immigration and transnational migrations and consider to what extent these phenomena are transforming European capitals into new cultural borderlands that pose significant challenges to imagining a “European” identity today.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1241
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        Historically, the European continent has constituted an exceedingly cosmopolitan and multi-national region consisting of various cultures, peoples and languages. Only following the devastating impact of war, ethnic cleansing and genocide in the mid-twentieth century did continental Europe become organized into hermetic national enclaves roughly corresponding to the realities of modern nation-states. This course will assess the ways in which European states over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries contended with cultural pluralism and diversity in an age of national identification. Starting with the growth of nationalist ideologies during the French Revolution and Napoleonic period, the module will examine how nationalism impacted continental societies through assessments of identity politics, imperial conquest and understandings of cosmopolitanism in both national and imperial contexts. Throughout the semester, students will be asked to assess a variety of polities spanning from France and Germany to borderland regions in the Ottoman Balkans and Slavic periphery and be expected to analyze processes of identity formation, ethnic violence and nation building in comparative contexts. The course will conclude with an examination of the current shift in Europe’s cultural geography spurred by postcolonial immigration and transnational migrations and consider to what extent these phenomena are transforming European capitals into new cultural borderlands that pose significant challenges to imagining a “European” identity today.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1242
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        In 1775, thirteen of Britain’s twenty-six American colonies began an unlikely revolt against the most powerful army in the world. By 1898, the United States had brushed aside European rivals and assumed continental dimensions, announcing itself as an economic, political, and military rival to the great imperial powers of Europe. This course examines the development of the United States from the American Revolution to the Spanish-American war, but challenges simple narratives of triumph or exceptionalism by focusing on the limitations placed on the diverse population of the United States and the very human costs of expansion. Indeed, for a nation “conceived in liberty”, the simple premise that “all men are created equal” proved rather more problematic in practice. How can we explain the effective exile of non-whites from the promises of the Declaration of Independence? Did white Americans view black people and Native Americans as inherently inferior, perhaps even sub-human? Did expansion into the space of the frontier place impossible strains on the political, cultural, and social unity of the new nation? And what impact did race, class, and gender have upon both the politics of the period and the understandings and projections of power in the United States and abroad?

        This course explores issues associated with race, space, and power in the United States from the 1770s to the 1890s. Topics include: the American Revolution; race and slavery in the early Republic; America’s unstable position in an “Age of Revolutions”; politics and class divisions; the various plans of the U.S. government for ‘civilizing’ or ‘removing’ Native Americans and free blacks; the influence of racial prejudice on the Mexican-American War and the Civil War; the violence of Reconstruction; western expansion and the rise of the United States as an imperial power.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1243
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        In 1775, thirteen of Britain’s twenty-six American colonies began an unlikely revolt against the most powerful army in the world. By 1898, the United States had brushed aside European rivals and assumed continental dimensions, announcing itself as an economic, political, and military rival to the great imperial powers of Europe. This course examines the development of the United States from the American Revolution to the Spanish-American war, but challenges simple narratives of triumph or exceptionalism by focusing on the limitations placed on the diverse population of the United States and the very human costs of expansion. Indeed, for a nation “conceived in liberty”, the simple premise that “all men are created equal” proved rather more problematic in practice. How can we explain the effective exile of non-whites from the promises of the Declaration of Independence? Did white Americans view black people and Native Americans as inherently inferior, perhaps even sub-human? Did expansion into the space of the frontier place impossible strains on the political, cultural, and social unity of the new nation? And what impact did race, class, and gender have upon both the politics of the period and the understandings and projections of power in the United States and abroad?

        This course explores issues associated with race, space, and power in the United States from the 1770s to the 1890s. Topics include: the American Revolution; race and slavery in the early Republic; America’s unstable position in an “Age of Revolutions”; politics and class divisions; the various plans of the U.S. government for ‘civilizing’ or ‘removing’ Native Americans and free blacks; the influence of racial prejudice on the Mexican-American War and the Civil War; the violence of Reconstruction; western expansion and the rise of the United States as an imperial power.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1248
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module will examine the most ambitious and sustained revolutionary project in modern European history: the attempt of the Bolshevik party to introduce socialism in Russia, and to transform fundamentally the nature of social relations not just in Russia, but also throughout the world. The main themes will include: processes of socio-economic modernisation; the impact of war on society; processes of state building; ideological and cultural revolution; the role of violence in political life; the development of civil society and ‘everyday life’ under political dictatorship; and Russia, the Soviet Union and the outside world

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1249
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        This module will examine the most ambitious and sustained revolutionary project in modern European history: the attempt of the Bolshevik party to introduce socialism in Russia, and to transform fundamentally the nature of social relations not just in Russia, but also throughout the world. The main themes will include: processes of socio-economic modernisation; the impact of war on society; processes of state building; ideological and cultural revolution; the role of violence in political life; the development of civil society and ‘everyday life’ under political dictatorship; and Russia, the Soviet Union and the outside world

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1253
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        The Making of ‘World Religions’ in South Asia: Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims from the fifteenth century to the present day

        This module explores the interwoven stories of the development of Hindu, Islamic and Sikh traditions from the 15th to the 21st century in the Indian sub-continent. It also introduces you to the key features of three major ‘World Religions’: Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam. Taking up the lives and times of poets, saints and religious leaders, as well as kings, missionaries, travelers, colonial officials and statesmen, you will be introduced to a wide variety of sources: from texts to television programmes and films; from religious philosophy and travelogues to devotional poems and even comic books. On the basis of these sources, you will explore how Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs have understood themselves and others (and how they have, in turn, been understood). The module will thus allow you to develop your knowledge and understanding of why religious ideas, practices and perceptions changed in the light of historical circumstances in the Indian sub-continent from c. 1400 CE to the present day.

         









         

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1254
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        The Making of ‘World Religions’ in South Asia: Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims from the fifteenth century to the present day

        This module explores the interwoven stories of the development of Hindu, Islamic and Sikh traditions from the 15th to the 21st century in the Indian sub-continent. It also introduces you to the key features of three major ‘World Religions’: Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam. Taking up the lives and times of poets, saints and religious leaders, as well as kings, missionaries, travelers, colonial officials and statesmen, you will be introduced to a wide variety of sources: from texts to television programmes and films; from religious philosophy and travelogues to devotional poems and even comic books. On the basis of these sources, you will explore how Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs have understood themselves and others (and how they have, in turn, been understood). The module will thus allow you to develop your knowledge and understanding of why religious ideas, practices and perceptions changed in the light of historical circumstances in the Indian sub-continent from c. 1400 CE to the present day.

         









         

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1255
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        Martyrs and Collaborators: Catholicism behind the Iron Curtain

        At the end of the Second World War, traditionally Catholic countries like Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary became hard-line Communist dictatorships under the watchful eye of the Soviet Union. This option will explore Church-State relations, together with the dilemmas faced by ordinary Catholics and Communists, in the so-called ‘satellite’ countries of East-Central Europe during half a century of Cold War. Particular attention will be paid to shifting Catholic-Communist relations in Hungary, Poland and Czechoslovakia during periods of Stalinization, de-Stalinization, reform Socialism and Normalization. Topics to be explored will include the show trial of so-called ‘Vatican agents’; a faked miracle by the secret police; the case of a Cardinal who took refuge for fifteen years in the U.S. Embassy in Budapest; the election of a Polish pope and the spirituality of the Polish Solidarity movement.  No previous knowledge of Czechoslovak, Hungarian or Polish history, or of Marxist theory and Catholic doctrine, will be expected or required.

         









         

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1256
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        Martyrs and Collaborators: Catholicism behind the Iron Curtain

        At the end of the Second World War, traditionally Catholic countries like Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary became hard-line Communist dictatorships under the watchful eye of the Soviet Union. This option will explore Church-State relations, together with the dilemmas faced by ordinary Catholics and Communists, in the so-called ‘satellite’ countries of East-Central Europe during half a century of Cold War. Particular attention will be paid to shifting Catholic-Communist relations in Hungary, Poland and Czechoslovakia during periods of Stalinization, de-Stalinization, reform Socialism and Normalization. Topics to be explored will include the show trial of so-called ‘Vatican agents’; a faked miracle by the secret police; the case of a Cardinal who took refuge for fifteen years in the U.S. Embassy in Budapest; the election of a Polish pope and the spirituality of the Polish Solidarity movement.  No previous knowledge of Czechoslovak, Hungarian or Polish history, or of Marxist theory and Catholic doctrine, will be expected or required.

         









         

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1257
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        Europe East and West, 1945-1995

        The course examines the history of post-war Europe, beginning with Allied plans and disagreements about governance in Germany and Eastern Europe. The Berlin crisis, the division of Germany and the creation of the European Economic Union complete the foundations of the post-war order in Europe. The term ends with an analysis of the changing stature in the era of decolonisation of Europe’s two remaining great powers, Britain and France, and the first crises within the Soviet Empire. The second term covers various challenges to the established order in Europe, beginning with the fall of authoritarian regimes in Southern Europe, the events of 1968, and the re-igniting of regional conflicts in Western Europe. It then considers the attempts to lessen the impact of European division through Ostpolitik and détente, which leads to an examination of the factors for the eventual collapse of the Soviet Empire. The course concludes with the violent disintegration of Yugoslavia and its implications for today’s Europe.

         

         

         

         






         

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1258
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        Europe East and West, 1945-1995

        The course examines the history of post-war Europe, beginning with Allied plans and disagreements about governance in Germany and Eastern Europe. The Berlin crisis, the division of Germany and the creation of the European Economic Union complete the foundations of the post-war order in Europe. The term ends with an analysis of the changing stature in the era of decolonisation of Europe’s two remaining great powers, Britain and France, and the first crises within the Soviet Empire. The second term covers various challenges to the established order in Europe, beginning with the fall of authoritarian regimes in Southern Europe, the events of 1968, and the re-igniting of regional conflicts in Western Europe. It then considers the attempts to lessen the impact of European division through Ostpolitik and détente, which leads to an examination of the factors for the eventual collapse of the Soviet Empire. The course concludes with the violent disintegration of Yugoslavia and its implications for today’s Europe.

         

         

         









         

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS1701
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This course introduces students to some of the major conceptual approaches that historians use – consciously or unconsciously – to understand the past. The course emphasises the practical use of historical methods, and so for each of the approaches considered you will read closely short examples of actual historical writing.

        In the first part of the course you will consider the emergence of history as a professional discipline in the universities during the nineteenth century, a period in which political and diplomatic history was dominant. In the second part, you will examine the challenge to traditional political history from a variety of social histories, notably through the movement for ‘history from below’, with its ramifications in Indian history, women’s and labour history. In the final part of the course you will discover the ‘cultural turn’ in historical writing since the 1990s, including the emergence of gender history, post-colonialism and transnational history.

        Assessment

        • Examination - summer: 50%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Written assessment: 15%
        Module codeHS1706
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The history of the later Roman empire is marked by rapid and dramatic change: the revolution in the position of Christianity in the empire, from persecuted cult to state religion; the ‘barbarian invasions’ of the fourth and fifth centuries, and the establishment of barbarian kingdoms within the territory of the Roman empire; the decline of Rome, but the emergence of vibrant new power centres, such as Constantinople; the splitting of the empire into two halves (East and West), and the collapse of the latter. How to understand this period has been central to the academic debate about it. Does it mark the ‘decline and fall of the Roman empire’, or is it a period of transformation, witnessing the metamorphosis of the world of antiquity into a new ‘late antique’ world? In addition to considering the political, social and cultural transformations of the period the module devotes attention to the famous architects of these transformations, such as Constantine the Great, Theodosius I, and Attila the Hun. The module draws on, and discusses the nature of, the rich source material for the period: classicising histories, church histories, chronicles, court panegyrics and polemics, letter collections, legislation, inscriptions, art, and archaeology.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1710
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        From 1000 onwards religious dissent became more prominent in Europe. Some religious movements were seen as such a threat to social stability that the authorities went to great lengths to crush them, resorting to crusades, inquisitions and burning those who refused to recant their beliefs. This course will seek to contextualise these movements within the society from which they came and to examine the impact that they made on that society. It will also examine who became involved in such movements and explore reasons for their involvement. Why were so many women attracted to heresy? Why did religious dissent become such a problem for the ecclesiastical and lay authorities and why were those authorities unable to counter that problem effectively? The course will focus on certain large-scale movements such as the Cathars of S. France and the Albigensian Crusade which set out to crush them; the Rhineland mystics; the Lollards of England; the Hussites of Bohemia and the disastrously unsuccessful crusades launched against them. It concludes by looking forward to the Reformation and asks how far the European heresies before 1450 contributed to the religious and philosophical revolution of the sixteenth century.

        Assessment

        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        Module codeHS1714
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The centuries between 1100 and 1500 witnessed a transformation in European society as its population trebled, hundreds of new towns and cities appeared while existing settlements expanded, and an international banking system emerged. Yet not every social group reaped the benefits of economic prosperity, rapid urbanisation and cultural renaissance. This module will examine the material conditions of the poor, sick and needy in medieval society, focusing primarily on Europe between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. From the labouring poor in towns and rural areas to mobile beggars and the destitute sick, the experience of poverty differed according to region, life-cycle and gender. The responses of the Church and state to poverty shifted across this period, with authorities reacting differently to population growth and disease. The Church provided much relief through hospitals, charity and alms-giving, yet sermons and debates over the meaning of poverty indicate complex religious attitudes towards the poor. The plague epidemics that began in 1347 were accompanied by a host of other devastating diseases, which wrought their worst havoc on the urban poor who lacked the economic resources of social elites. Throughout the module, we will consider the experience of poverty, how authorities identified and sought to control the poor, and how the destitute coped in everyday life. The unit will explore a range of sources from miracle tales, legal records, chronicles, sermons and archaeological evidence.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1741
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The twentieth century was a turbulent period in French history. The French experienced victory and defeat in war, foreign occupation, change in political regime, civil unrest and near revolution in 1936, 1945 and 1968, the demise of their empire and integration into the European Union. The course provides a broad introduction to the major political, social and cultural turning points in the period and examines some of the major themes that shape the period as a whole (such as immigration, the birth-rate, class conflict and economic modernisation).

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1742
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        In the mid-seventeenth century England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland were engulfed in a destructive and transformative civil war. This module examines this remarkable period in an innovative fashion by considering the British dimension of the conflict. This charts how developments in Scotland and Ireland, as well as England and Wales, are crucial to understanding the origins and progress of conflict. The course thus considers the rising of the Scottish Covenanters who challenged against their king’s authority in 1638, as well as events such as the bloody Irish Rebellion of 1641 which speeded England’s descent into Civil War. In addition to this multi-kingdom perspective, the module also pays particular attention to the cultural and social impact of civil war. It explores the newly-expanded world of news, print and propaganda in this ‘first age of journalism’, and examines the arguments about this new public sphere of print made by people like the poet John Milton and the radically democratic Levellers. The module deals with one of the most exciting and absorbing periods of British History when the fault lines between kingdoms and communities released forces which ultimately saw the king executed and a pan-British Republic established by the force of Cromwell’s New Model Army.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1745
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This module provides an introduction to transformations in the conceptualisation, treatment, and experience of mental illness in Britain over the past two centuries. Lectures provide a broad overview of key themes, including: the growth and decline of the asylum; gender and madness; madness in film, literature, and other forms of popular culture; psychiatry in war; psychoanalysis; nerves and modern life; psychopharmacology; and critiques of psychiatric power. Seminars provide the opportunity to discuss and debate these issues in more depth, and to develop skills in analysing different historiographical approaches and different types of source material. In both lectures and seminars, topics will be placed in the context of major historiographical debates relating to the work of Michel Foucault, Andrew Scull, Roy Porter, and Nikolas Rose. The emphasis throughout will be on uncovering the cultural resonances of madness, psychology and psychiatry over the period; changes in conceptualising mental health and illness; understanding the different perspectives on madness provided by different agents (for example psychiatrists, patients, novelists, and photographers); and analysing how ideas of mind are mediated through different modes of representation.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1749
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        Historically, the European continent has constituted an exceedingly cosmopolitan and multi-national region comprised of various cultures, peoples and languages. Only following the devastating impact of war, ethnic cleansing and genocide in the mid-twentieth century did continental Europe become organized into hermetic national enclaves roughly corresponding to the realities of modern nation-states. This course will assess the ways in which Europe states over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries contended with cultural pluralism and diversity in an age of national identification. Starting with the growth of nationalist ideologies during the French Revolution and Napoleonic period, the module will examine how nationalism impacted continental societies through assessments of identity politics, imperial conquest and understandings of cosmopolitanism in both national and imperial contexts. Throughout the semester, students will be asked to assess a variety of polities spanning from France and Germany to borderland regions in the Ottoman Balkans and Slavic periphery and be expected to analyze processes of identity formation, ethnic violence and nation building in comparative contexts. The course will conclude with an examination of the current shift in Europe’s cultural geography spurred by postcolonial immigration and transnational migrations and consider to what extent these phenomena are transforming European capitals into new cultural borderlands that pose significant challenges to imagining a “European” identity today.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1752
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        Today’s China is widely perceived as an economic powerhouse and a crucial player in Asia and more broadly in the international arena. However, China’s path to both economic and political prominence has been long and tortuous. The history of modern China provides an exciting and challenging platform for discussing key themes in modern history such as an empire’s disintegration, imperialism, nationalism, revolution and state building. This module will discuss the pivotal events in Chinese modern history by laying emphasis on China’s quest for modernity, the interaction/confrontation with the outside world and the centrality of ideology all in the context of modern historiography. The first part of the module will explore topics such as the transition from imperial to Republican China, the ‘impact’ of western imperialism on Chinese state and society, the ideological roots and the implementation of the Communist revolution, and the impact and consequences of the War against Japan (1937-1945). The second part will focus on post-1949 by discussing the Chinese Communist Party’s vision for new China in the 1950s, the unfolding of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping’s reform era, and contemporary politics and society.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1756
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The post-war period was one of rapid change in Britain. The foundation of the welfare state, increased affluence, a sexual revolution, technological advancements and the gradual ‘break-up of Britain’ transformed British society. This module seeks to explore both change and consensus by focusing upon Welsh society from the outbreak of the Second World War to the end of the century. From the sweeping changes introduced by Attlee’s Labour government to the reversal of the post-war consensus under Thatcher, you will analyse how major political events and economic changes affected the lives and lifestyles of ordinary Welsh people. We will also consider how people attempted to transform the world in which they lived through voting behaviour, protest movements and strike action. The arson and sit-ins of the Welsh Language Society and miners’ strike of 1984-85 will allow us to consider how people fought to save an idea of Wales from destruction. Youth culture will form a particular focus within the module and you will be challenged to critically think about the significance of popular culture, national movements and family life. The complex issue of identity will be carefully examined and we will question the nature of Welshness and Britishness alongside gender, race and class identities. As a contemporary history module, we will draw upon a rich range of sources including, photographs, films, oral testimonies, novels, documentaries, news clips and documentaries

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1758
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This module examines the history of popular movements in Britain in the period of the industrial revolution and its aftermath. It considers the social effects of industrialisation upon living standards, gender relations, the labour process and class structures. The module then examines the various popular movements and ideologies that developed from this context. These include the Corresponding Societies of the 1790s, industrial movements such as Luddism and trade unionism, Owenism and early socialism, Chartism, radicalism and feminism. A range of questions will be explored: How revolutionary were such movements, and why did Britain escape the revolutionary convulsions that affected other European countries? What were the main ideological characteristics of these movements? Is it possible to perceive ideological continuities through the period? To what extent were such movements ‘national’ and how did various parts of the British Isles relate to one another through them? The module will take a four nations approach to explore the startling dynamics of this period of upheaval in a variety of contexts.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1760
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        In 1775, thirteen of Britain’s twenty-six American colonies began an unlikely revolt against the most powerful army in the world. By 1898, the United States had brushed aside European rivals and assumed continental dimensions, announcing itself as an economic, political, and military rival to the great imperial powers of Europe. This course examines the development of the United States from the American Revolution to the Spanish-American war, but challenges simple narratives of triumph or exceptionalism by focusing on the limitations placed on the diverse population of the United States and the very human costs of expansion. Indeed, for a nation “conceived in liberty”, the simple premise that “all men are created equal”proved rather more problematic in practice. How can we explain the effective exile of non-whites from the promises of the Declaration of Independence? Did white Americans view black people and Native Americans as inherently inferior, perhaps even sub-human? Did expansion into the space of the frontier place impossible strains on the political, cultural, and social unity of the new nation? And what impact did race, class, and gender have upon both the politics of the period and the understandings and projections of power in the United States and abroad?

        This course explores issues associated with race, space, and power in the United States from the 1770s to the 1890s. Topics include: the American Revolution; race and slavery in the early Republic; America’s unstable position in an “Age of Revolutions”; politics and class divisions; the various plans of the U.S. government for ‘civilizing’ or ‘removing’ Native Americans and free blacks; the influence of racial prejudice on the Mexican-American War and the Civil War; the violence of Reconstruction; western expansion and the rise of the United States as an imperial power.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1764
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This module explores ideals of urban and rural life in Britain and the United States during a period of dramatic changes in the built environment, the use of land, technologies and lifestyles. The modern city could represent progress, freedom, economic prosperity and a source of local and national pride. But competing ideals of rural life and landscape remained important, cherished as foundations of national culture and identity, political ideologies, health and morality. Meanwhile, the growth of the suburbs promised new opportunities and ways of living – whilst also posing questions about the future of community, quality of life, housing, planning and the impact on the environment. This module compares the experiences of Britain and America as they came to terms with the challenges of modern urban life and experimented with what cities should look like, how they should be planned, and the implications for the future of rural communities, economies and landscapes. As well as taking a comparative approach, the module examines transnational histories of ideas, technologies and expertise, tracing the ways in which design, planning and the conservation movement crossed the Atlantic, developing common debates and models. Drawing on social, cultural and environmental history, the module introduces key themes in these debates, looking at how city and country were imagined and experienced in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, engaging with new critical approaches to the subject, and exploring the topic through contemporary debates, literature, art, architecture and film.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1765
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This course is designed to provide a critical introduction to the political, economic, social and cultural history of India from the assumption of direct rule by the Crown to independence. The module follows a broadly chronological framework along major themes which include - the consolidation of British rule after 1857; rebellion and resistance by Indians including subordinated groups; the emergence of the colonial economy; changes in the role and status of women; socio-religious and revivalist movements; the nationalist movement; the growth of communal identities and partition. The study of the Indian economy, politics and society will be useful for students planning an in-depth study of the sub-continent in their final year. No prior knowledge of the subject is assumed.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1766
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This module explores the interwoven stories of the development of Hindu, Islamic and Sikh traditions from the 15th to the 21st century in the Indian sub-continent. It also introduces you to the key features of three major ‘World Religions’: Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam. Taking up the lives and times of poets, saints and religious leaders, as well as kings, missionaries, travelers, colonial officials and statesmen, you will be introduced to a wide variety of sources: from texts to television programmes and films; from religious philosophy and travelogues to devotional poems and even comic books. On the basis of these sources, you will explore how Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs have understood themselves and others (and how they have, in turn, been understood). The module will thus allow you to develop your knowledge and understanding of why religious ideas, practices and perceptions changed in the light of historical circumstances in the Indian sub-continent from c. 1400 CE to the present day.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1768
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The transformation in Japan during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was remarkable both for its breadth and its rapidity. In the space of a few decades, a tradition-bound society governed by the samurai class of sword carrying warrior-bureaucrats was replaced by an industrialising modern nation-state built along a western model. Increasing contact with the west touched all elements of society: politics, culture, thought, and even daily life. Rather than a straightforward narrative of modernisation, however, the picture which emerges is a complex and ambiguous one, with new ideas inspiring competing visions of Japan's future and its position in the wider world.

        This module considers the modern history of Japan from the nineteenth century – the late Tokugawa period and the Meiji Restoration – up to World War Two, the occupation era, and beyond. The focus will be on cultural and intellectual history, but along the way we will evaluate models and concepts which have been used in the interpretation of Japanese history, as well as encountering familiar events from unfamiliar perspectives, and seeking to ask what Japan’s experiences can tell us of the broader modern world.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1775
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The course examines the history of post-war Europe, beginning with Allied plans and disagreements about governance in Germany and Eastern Europe. The Berlin crisis, the division of Germany and the creation of the European Economic Union complete the foundations of the post-war order in Europe. The term ends with an analysis of the changing stature in the era of decolonisation of Europe’s two remaining great powers, Britain and France, and the first crises within the Soviet Empire. The second term covers various challenges to the established order in Europe, beginning with the fall of authoritarian regimes in Southern Europe, the events of 1968, and the re-igniting of regional conflicts in Western Europe. It then considers the attempts to lessen the impact of European division through Ostpolitik and détente, which leads to an examination of the factors for the eventual collapse of the Soviet Empire. The course concludes with the violent disintegration of Yugoslavia and its implications for today’s Europe.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1776
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This module will examine the most ambitious and sustained revolutionary project in modern European history: the attempt of the Bolshevik party to introduce socialism in Russia, and to transform fundamentally the nature of social relations not just in Russia, but also throughout the world. The main themes will include: processes of socio-economic modernisation; the impact of war on society; processes of state building; ideological and cultural revolution; the role of violence in political life; the development of civil society and ‘everyday life’ under political dictatorship; and Russia, the Soviet Union and the outside world.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1799
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The period between 1750 and 1914 has commonly been associated with the rise of modern medicine. In this period anaesthetics and antiseptics were introduced; x-rays and antitoxins were discovered; hospitals and asylums became ‘medicalized’; and medicine and nursing took on an increasingly professional structure. This module explores how there was more to the rise of “modern” medicine than heroic discoveries, great men and women, and scientific progress. It examines the nature of medicine, health and disease through a study of medicine’s impact on patients, communities, society and disease, and places the transitions in medicine within the wider context of nineteenth-century British history. The module is broken down into a number of inter-related thematic blocs which trace the major issues in the social history of medicine across the period. These include: the nature and impact of disease (both everyday and epidemic); anatomy and the body; the nature of medical knowledge; the delivery of care and treatment; the growth of medicine and nursing as a profession; the institutionalization of medicine; science and religion; opposition to medicine; the interactions between medicine and the state, and the impact of the First World War on medicine.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1804
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This module explores key themes of sexuality and gender in European history between c.1200 and 1550. It examines the Church's attempts to govern marriage, shape family life and control sexualities, and also how secular authorities influenced sexual practices. The plague of the mid-fourteenth century not only claimed many lives but changed the social and economic position of men and women: how did gender shape the way that people married, worked and had families in towns and the countryside before and after this devastating epidemic? The module also investigates the influence of the Reformations of the sixteenth century on the gender order in society. Through the study of lesbianism, homosexuality, and other ‘marginal’ groups, students will be introduced to a broad range of sexualities in medieval Europe. The gender identities of Jews and Muslims, will be examined, along with the anxieties that sowed the seeds for the “witch craze”.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1805
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        e leading Military Orders were the Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights. These were religious orders set up in the 12th century to defend the Christian pilgrim routes and holy sites in Palestine. They rapidly acquired property all over Europe and became influential in royal courts and at the papal curia, as well as being leading bankers and shippers. This course not only studies the Military Orders' role in crusades, but also examines their activity in Europe, from which they drew money, supplies and personnel for their wars in the East. It begins by examining the origins of the controversial concept of the 'monk-knight' in the development of the ideals of knighthood, holy war and monasticism. It goes on to follow the Orders' career in crusades in the Middle East, the Baltic and Spain, and their economic activities, literature and relations with rulers.  We will discuss in seminars not only the Military Orders’ activities in the Holy Land and in Europe but also how the members of the order saw themselves, what they believed their function to be and how outsiders regarded them. How far did the Military Orders actually fit into the ideals of knighthood, holy war and monasticism? Why did young warriors join the Military Orders? What was the Orders’ contribution to European society? What did outsiders expect of them? The course ends with a study of the infamous trial of the Templars, in which the brothers of the most famous Military Order were tried for heresy. Students will study original sources in translation and examine the historiographical debates which surround the Military Orders.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1818
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This module examines the enormous social and cultural significance of slavery in Christian Europe from the late Roman period to the fourteenth century. Slavery was of great cultural importance in many European societies. The marginality of enslaved people facilitated definitions of hierarchy and community; reinforcing ideas of collective identity and morality. Slavery was not simply a form of labour exploitation relating to economic production; it had powerful symbolic, psychological, cultural and gendered dimensions. Through the examination of a wide variety of primary sources (including law codes, chronicles, sagas, wills, saint's lives and archaeology) this module explores the complex relations between enslaved people and their masters; examining strategies of domination and resistance. It places particular emphasis on attitudes and perceptions within the Christian Church, which generally accepted that slavery was an essential part of the fabric of society. Yet Churchmen were also concerned about the sinful aspects of slavery and attempted to regulate violent slave raiding activities and the sexual temptation inherent in slave holding systems. By studying contemporary texts, we will therefore assess the importance of slave holding, raiding and trading behaviours in relation to broader conceptions of power, gender and religious and ethnic identity in this period.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1823
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This Advanced Option explores the nature of and attitudes to crime and punishment in early modern England and Wales. Through a dialogue between intensive primary source analysis and close readings of secondary literature, we shall evaluate the assumptions that underpin the history of crime. Unlawful activities covered include homicide such as murder and manslaughter, duelling, spousal killing, and infanticide; property crimes from simple theft and burglary to highway robbery and piracy; the speech crimes of sexual slander, scolding, and sedition; witchcraft, and sexual offences such as rape and sodomy. Discussion of individual topics and their historiographies will be structured around connected themes. The most prevalent of these is culpability: on what basis did early modern people ascribe guilt or innocence in particular circumstances, and to what extent were beliefs about full or partial culpability reflected in sentences and punishments? Culpability was rarely a straightforward concept. It will be considered in relation to several other categories, including class and status, gender, age, honour, religion, and community. The issue of change over time is addressed throughout the module. In order to explore these issues, we shall engage with a rich array of primary sources. Many of these were produced by or about the legal process itself, such as witness testimony, confessions, indictments, legal manuals, legislation, officially sanctioned printed trial reports, ordinaries’ accounts of executions, and newspaper accounts of trials and punishments. We also examine a number of other popular printed forms, including the ‘street literature’ of pamphlet accounts of murder and witchcraft, ballads, criminal biographies, and plays.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1824
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The early modern witch-hunt has puzzled historians for decades. Why were more than 40,000 women and men executed for a fictitious crime? A crime that was not only imaginary but the worst combination of murder and devil worship, cannibalism and sodomy? The witch was the ultimate outsider; she was, in the words of the Puritan divine William Perkins, ‘the most notorious traitor and rebel that can be’. How could she emerge in the period of the Renaissance and thrive during the Scientific Revolution? This module will study these questions and the wide range of methodological approaches that have been used to answer them. Literary and gender theories jostle with readings inspired by anthropology and psychoanalysis. Students will be encouraged to engage with these approaches critically. A selection of primary sources will allow them to study first-hand how witches were seen by visual artists and depicted on stage, but they will also examine the writings of demonologists and sceptics and hear individual accusers and accused speak for themselves.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1832
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The political, diplomatic, military and socio-economic history of the Third Reich. The course seeks to produce an understanding of the nature and aims of one of the two principal totalitarian dictatorships in twentieth-century history. It begins with the structures and governing principles of the regime, examines the preparations for war at all levels of German national life, which leads naturally to the phase of rapid expansion in 1938/39. After considering the Blitzkrieg period and Nazi planning for war in the East, the term ends with an analysis of the origins and execution of Nazi genocide. The second term considers the fate of the Reich’s new European Schicksalsgemeinschaft – the allies and satellites as well as the occupied countries and territories. Attention then returns to the Reich itself to consider the issues of popular support for the regime, of Nazi modernisation and the motivation of German forces on the Eastern front. The final phase of Nazi rule is reflected in the question of German resistance, the crumbling of the regime and the fate of the German people in the East. The course concludes by considering the Third Reich’s legacy.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1838
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This module investigates the formation of modern political parties in China and their respective approach to state building and mass politics. Modern Chinese politics have been dominated by the fierce political competition between the Nationalist Party and the Communist Party. The module examines China’s efforts towards state building by exploring the Nationalist and the Communist Parties’ approaches and their respective understanding of what constituted a modern nation. Central to the module will be discussion of mass mobilisation as a tool utilised by each party for securing political legitimisation and the promotion of state building. These topics are closely interconnected and central to the understanding of China’s modern political evolution. Key questions include: Why in Chinese politics has the issue of mobilising people and communities towards defined objectives been so central? To what extent did mass mobilisation allow political participation? And to what extent political struggles and mobilisation campaigns nurtured a culture of coercion and violence?

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1848
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        On 6 February 1934 far right leagues and veterans rioted on the Place de La Concorde in front of the French parliament, and forced the resignation of a left-wing government. To many, it seemed that France was about to go the same way as Italy and Germany, and in response, the left-wing parties (Communists, Socialists, and Radicals) formed an antifascist ‘Popular Front’. For at least fifteen years, struggles between antifascists dominated not only politics, but labour relations, cultural production, intellectual debates, and foreign policy. These struggles continued after France was occupied by the Germans in 1940, as the country became polarised between the pro-Nazi Vichy regime and the Resistance. The purpose of this course is to explore the many ramifications of the conflict between fascists and antifascists, in all of these areas.

        The course combines chronological treatment of the political drama with a thematic approach. Students may follow one or more themes through the course (for instance, gender, military history, intellectual life, economic change, the family, youth, the trade unions etc.)

        A number of seminars will be devoted to close reading of key texts, on which there will be a compulsory exam question.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1855
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        In recent years historians have made important moves towards integrating the study of Empire within the broader political, cultural and social history of Britain and its ex-colonies. As a consequence, they have treated the study of Britain and India since the eighteenth- to the early half of the twentieth century as an integrated dialogue between the ‘metropole’ or home country and the ‘periphery’ or colony by applying the new categories of historical analyses: race and sex alongside gender and class. Students will engage in a critical and in-depth study of the history and politics of imperialism in this course. It will also provide multiple perspectives on the changing relationships between the coloniser and the colonised through several themes and topics which include: the nature and function of colonial knowledge of India;  theories of Aryanism, race and masculinity in the legitimation of empire; regulation of sexual behaviour between the Raj and its subjects; the role of the memsahib in the making and unmaking of empire; missions, missionary activity and the nature of Indian conversions to Christianity; the myth of ‘global sisterhood’ examined through the forging of imperial or Victorian feminism; and the new citizens of empire namely the Asian Diaspora in Britain. Students will hone their historical skills by engaging with a wide variety of primary source materials drawn from social legislation such as the Contagious Diseases Act to key episodes such as the debates over Sati (widow burning), the Ilbert Bill and Child marriage controversies of the nineteenth century. Both Britons and Indians will figure in the historical analyses from soldiers and prostitutes to European housewives in India.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1858
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The modern history of Japan has been significantly influenced by Japanese contact with other nations: initially through the Dutch traders in the Tokugawa period and then through much greater contact with the West and elsewhere with the opening of Japan in the 1860s. Just as this allowed Japan to learn about the outside world, it also allowed the outside world to learn more of Japan. Indeed, Japan has long held a fascination for foreigners, from Victorian-era travellers and diplomats to hippies and businessmen in the post-war period.

        This course will study the history of this transnational contact, chiefly through the eyes of visitors to Japan, reading their published accounts, letters and diaries. We will seek not only to ask what these texts can tell us of Japanese history, but also examine the authors themselves, developing ideas for a transnational history of travel.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1860
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This module evaluates the influence of socialists on society and politics in Britain up to the end of the Great War. It examines the origins and early development of the socialist movement ,when the adoption of Marxist ideas by small groups of middle class idealists in the 1880s added a new and potentially revolutionary impetus to political and social thought. Over the next decades socialist ideas influenced most aspects of British politics and society. These ideas were debated in trade unions, churches and chapels, political parties and cultural and social organisations. Socialists, however, faced fundamental problems in translating their revolutionary principles into political reality. The vehicle ultimately chosen pursue their political aims was the Labour Party, but as its power grew, some socialists became critical of its ideology and strategy, resulting in a passionate debate which, arguably, has never been resolved. Was the Labour Party the only realistic route of advance for British socialists? Did socialists offer a cure for all social ills, or were they as involved in imperialism and patriarchal rule as the rest of British society? This module examines a fascinating and exciting period of British history, though the perspective of a movement which sought to change fundamentally the nature of society and government. It explores the debates and disputes unleashed by the attempt to turn revolutionary theory into practical politics; debates which still reverberate in contemporary politics and society.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1868
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The Great Depression of the 1930s was a defining moment in the twentieth century. From the dustbowls of rural America to the idle factories and industries of Britain, millions of working men and women faced unemployment and uncertainty. This was, however, an age of extremes. The 1920s and 1930s saw some enjoy a rise in the standard of living and new forms of leisure through car and radio ownership, dance halls and cinemas. This module seeks to explore the lifestyles and experiences of working-class men and women in period that remains contested within the historiography. By drawing upon a wealth of primary source material you will explore the living standards, family life and leisure opportunities of the population of south Wales. South Wales forms a fascinating case study for analysing not only living conditions and leisure, but also the political responses of the working class. While Britain largely escaped the rise in political extremism witnessed in other countries, this was nonetheless a time of political uncertainty. From the end of the First World War people took to the streets to demand change through massive protest movements which drew the attention of the Home Office. We will consider in detail what led the people of south Wales to protest on record scale both in the workplace and on the streets. We will look in detail at the rise of the Labour Party, the growth of Communism and the support for the Spanish Civil War. Gender, class and race will be central concepts and we will analyse the 1919 race riots, the idea of class war and focus upon masculine identity. You will use newspapers, diaries, oral histories, films, novels, photographs and social surveys to draw your own conclusions on the ‘myth’ of the ‘Devil’s Decade’ and the reality and memories of this extraordinary period.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1883
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        The Soviet state was the most violent in twentieth-century peacetime Europe, and the bulk of this violence was concentrated in the first twenty years of the state’s history. The violent practices of the Soviet state evolved from the openly-proclaimed and unabashedly justified Red Terror of 1918 to the ‘absolutely secret’ nature of the violent police ‘mass operations’ of 1937–38. This module will explore such violent state practices within the broader framework of the ruling ideology of the Soviet state: Leninism and its Stalinist development. The module will examine the nature of this ideology and the complexity of its relationship with violence. Of particular importance will be discussion of such themes as the Bolshevik justification of violence; concepts of the sacredness of life; whether Leninist ideology may be considered a ‘political religion’; how the Bolsheviks understood their enemies (real and alleged), and the question of human nature relative to human nurture; the relationship between the law and state violence; how the Soviet state managed the public relations of mass violence; and comparison of theories and practices of violence in the Soviet Union with other states, especially Nazi Germany. The module will involve a considerable amount of primary source reading.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1884
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        Czechoslovakia, famously described by Neville Chamberlain as a ‘faraway country of which we know nothing’, was created in 1918, dissolved in 1939, recreated in 1945, federated in 1969 and abolished in 1992. Although the multinational Czechoslovak state lasted for no longer than an average person’s lifespan, it went through almost every sort of political system and regime to which Europeans were subjected over the course of the twentieth century. 

        This advanced option module will examine the history of Czechoslovakia from its creation as an independent republic at the end of the First World War, through its democratic, Fascist and Communist periods, until the state’s dissolution at the end of 1992. The module will explore major themes in twentieth-century European history -- the post-First World War settlement, the rise of Fascism, the origins and course of the Second World War, post-Second World War Communist expansion, the Cold War, Stalinism and de-Stalinization, reform Communism, the 1989 revolutions and post-Communist ‘transition’ – all from the perspective of a small power whose opinions were seldom taken into account by the Great Powers.

        No prior knowledge of Czechoslovak history is expected or required. Instead, you will be invited to immerse yourself in primary source material and to engage imaginatively with the plight of a less well-known middle-European country.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1887
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        Modern European political history has been indebted to what historians have commonly interpreted as the “revolutionary tradition” that originated during the years of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. This course proposes a critical examination of the legacy left by the Revolution and its impact on politics and society in the nineteenth century. Starting with the uprisings of the late eighteenth century, lectures and discussions will examine the divergence of the revolutionary ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity and their impact on shaping leading political movements in the modern period. Throughout the year, topics will examine revolutionary movements in a comparative context and consider how revolutionary projects and ideologies were transformed in the midst of the social, political and cultural changes that took place between the French Revolution and First World War. Classes will also focus on new perspectives that assess European revolutions in transnational and global contexts, noting the ways in which Enlightenment and emancipatory values created tensions within colonial and non-Western societies as leaders and revolutionary actors attempted to apply and adapt the principles of Europe’s revolutionary tradition to the particularities of their own societies.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1890
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        Despite absorbing under four percent of the 12 million Africans brutally transplanted to the Americas over the four centuries of the transatlantic slave trade, slavery became entrenched on the North American mainland during the colonial period and acted as a permanent stain on a nation formed on the premise that “all men are created equal.” The “Peculiar Institution” came to define, divide, and ultimately tear apart the United States with the brutal Civil War of 1861-1865, and in this course students will explore the origins, entrenchment, and ultimate destruction of racial slavery in North America and the United States. More particularly, however, students will move beyond a model of victimhood and explore how the enslaved population attempted to shape human lives in an inhuman institution. Key topics covered in the module include: the transatlantic slave trade and the origins of slavery in North America; the failure of abolition in a revolutionary era; the expansion of slavery; the development of slave communities and culture; sex and reproduction; childhood and old age in chains; the social and racial ideology of the slaveholding class; slave resistance and rebellions; free blacks and poor white populations; the politics of slavery and abolition. The harsh legacies of slavery ensure that historical debates on the topic are not settled or neat and students will engage with a vibrant historiography, connecting the history they study to contemporary issues.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1894
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This module examines the relations between gender, power and subjectivity in twentieth-century Britain, with a particular focus on women’s experiences. Following Joan Scott, gender is viewed as both ‘a constituent element of social relationships’ and ‘a primary way of signifying relationships of power’.  In the opening years of the twentieth century, suffragettes believed if women were granted the vote, they would build a new social order of equality, justice, and greater happiness for all. Half a century after women were admitted to the franchise on the same terms as men, feminists realized that formal political representation was only half the struggle: the slogan ‘the personal is political’ neatly encapsulated the view that all aspects of life have a political dimension, and change must be enacted at the level of the self and personal relationships, as well as at the level of law. The module investigates the operations of relations of gender and power at different locations, including home, the workplace, and the family. It considers the sexed body as a site of struggle and freedom, and emphasises the importance of sexuality to fraught debates about British society and its future. Finally, it explores the thoughts and feelings of women as active agents of history, rather than as passive victims of patriarchal power. Throughout the module, we will grapple with the twin problems of retrieving voices ‘hidden from history’, and attempting to access individual subjectivity, in relation to a range of source material including autobiographies, Mass-Observation diaries and surveys, medical texts, and popular magazines.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1896
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        During the nineteenth century, Britain became more extensively urbanized than ever before. In 1800, about one in four British people lived in cities; by 1900, three in four did so. Rather than this being a source of pride or optimism, contemporary observers feared that the city was becoming a 'terra incognita', a place of 'dreadful delight'. Manchester was 'Coke Town', London the 'modern Babylon'. At a physical level, urbanization compounded existing social problems of sanitation, disease, and housing and gave rise to new ones that contemporaries linked to crime, prostitution, and poverty. Cities were seen as sites of moral corruption and violence, the haunts of criminals, drug addicts, prostitutes, homosexuals and immigrants. More adventurous Victorians saw cities as places of excitement, however. Many took advantage of the growing leisure opportunities on offer. Others went 'slumming', exploring working-class districts, slums, and rookeries either in pursuit of excitement or to offer charity. This module explores the nature of urban living and the underside of the Victorian and Edwardian cities. Rather than sensationalizing the urban experience, it looks at how contemporaries viewed and interpreted the city. It examines the effect of rapid urbanisation on different institutions, groups and individuals as well as on ideas of class, gender, sexuality, race and welfare. It investigates those who lived, played, and worked in them, and how the social and physical problems they encountered were defined and tackled. In doing so, the module explores of number of issues, such as poverty and fears of the underclass, crime, leisure and pleasure, sex and prostitution, homosexuality, pollution and disease, race and fears of degeneration, and examines contemporary responses to them through the police, social purity movement, charity, controls on drink and entertainment, etc.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS1897
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits30

        This advanced option module explores cultural life in Britain in the mid-twentieth century. From the popular fiction, politicised poetry and documentary film movement of the 1930s, to the public sculpture, modernist design and kitchen-sink dramas of the 1950s, we will examine the work of artists, musicians and writers, as well as their audiences, reception and context. The nature and importance of ‘culture’ itself was much discussed in this period. Definitions of lowbrow, middlebrow and highbrow marked distinctions in the consumption of the arts, reflecting and defining divisions within the society by class, education and gender. However the arts were also credited with the potential to unify the nation, contributing to morale in wartime and to the postwar reconstruction. Through the 1940s, the state began to intervene in the shaping and encouragement of national culture, taking up its role as patron of the arts. The lectures and key readings in the course examine these changing parameters, as well as the contemporary debates about culture and its relationship to national identity. The seminars allow us to engage with primary sources from a range of different types of literature, visual art, music, film and design, developing skills of source analysis and exploring the complex ways in which these art forms both reflected and shaped identities and social and political experiences.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS2000
        LevelL4
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module provides an introduction to the underpinning skills of x-radiography, investigative cleaning, adhesives and gap-filling of archaeological and historical objects.

        This module categorises treatment procedures that are used to reveal the shape, history and technology of cultural objects. Students learn how to apply selected investigative cleaning techniques via structured practical work on cultural objects. Documentation and reporting this work and its outcomes is used to assess student performance. Practical applications of conservation practice are linked to applications of materials used as adhesives and gap-fillers. Properties of materials and aspects of conservation ethics are explored via set practical exercises. The module includes an extensive introduction to laboratory health and safety and the laboratory local rules. The module is an essential underpinning to the Conservation Skills in Practice module and has significant linkage to the Introduction to ‘Investigative Techniques in Conservation’ and ‘Polymers in Conservation’ modules. 

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeHS2001
        LevelL4
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        The investigative role of the conservator is explored via the introduction to a selection of recording, investigative and analytical techniques commonly used in conservation. The module introduces students to analytical techniques and equipment that underpin conservation practice set in an ethical context. Methods commonly used in conservation include object examination with UV, photography, microscopy, microphotography and infrared spectroscopy.

         

        The module has significant linkage to the ‘Introduction to Conservation Skills’ and ‘Conservation Skills in Practice’ modules. 

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS2002
        LevelL4
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        This module provides an opportunity to enact investigative cleaning skills developed in previous modules and integrate them in reflective practice on archaeological and historical objects. This module utilises treatment procedures that are used to reveal the shape, history and technology of cultural objects. Students will apply selected investigative cleaning techniques via structured practical work on cultural objects. Documentation and reporting this work and its outcomes is used to assess student performance. Student will be expected to work to professional standards in the delivery of sae and sustainable lab practice and to be responsible for the heritage items in their care.

         

        The module has significant linkage to the ‘Introduction to Conservation Skills’ and ‘Investigative Techniques in Conservation’ modules. 

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 60%
        • Report: 20%
        Module codeHS2123
        LevelL4
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module is an introduction to the archaeology of the Mediterranean from c. 8000 BC to the sixth century AD, focusing on three societies: Egypt, Greece and Rome. The module will trace the origins of agriculture and cities in the Near East, before looking at these three civilisations in turn. The emphasis throughout will be on how the material evidence relates to the life, culture and politics of these societies, and on the ways in which archaeology can be used to study them. The module will examine a number of key themes and concepts in relation to each society, such as power and the state, writing and literacy, art and representation, settlements and urbanism, the economy, religion and death.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS2124
        LevelL4
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        The archaeology of Britain is a topic that intercuts almost all areas of enquiry, from human origins studies, later prehistory, Roman and Classical archaeology, and medieval archaeology.

        This course will introduce you to chronologies and key concepts, such as ‘identity’, ‘power’, ‘the body’, ‘settlement’ and ‘performance’, as a means to engage with archaeology from the last 800,000 years. You will study the motivations and methods of making things, places and people. The module not only presents the theoretical principles and methods of analysis for studying archaeology, but also presents these alongside plentiful and detailed case studies.

         

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS2125
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        The module aims to introduce students to common use of scientific evidence, process and methods employed in archaeology. A range of methods are discussed based on case studies covering subjects including human evolution; climate change; human migration and subsistence; farming and husbandry; material culture and associated technologies. The module concludes with an overview of changes to material evidence during the burial, and basic conservation practice in field archaeology. Methods of documentation and recording of evidence are summarised and practical skills of photography are developed.  The module is taught by a range of specialist staff delivering research lead teaching. A series of practical sessions highlight links between theory and practice enabling students to develop skills and make best use of our resources. The module is designed to complement HS2126 Discovering Archaeology

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Portfolio: 50%
        Module codeHS2126
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module aims to introduce students to the techniques and approaches that archaeologists employ to identify and explore archaeological monuments and landscapes, and to establish archaeological chronologies. A range of lectures, practical sessions and field trips are organised to inform the students about the contemporary role of the archaeologist, surveying and recording field monuments, their exploration using techniques such as geophysical survey, aerial photography and field walking. The techniques used to excavate archaeological sites are explored and the recording and post excavation processes are examined. The final part of the course explores the methods used to construct archaeological chronologies; including typological dating, historical chronologies and scientific methods, especially radiocarbon dating.

        Assessment

        • Practical-based assessment: 50%
        • Report: 50%
        Module codeHS2201
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This course will introduce students to the archaeological evidence for the introduction and establishment of an Anglo-Saxon population and culture to Britain, and to its subsequent development in the form of the social and economic infrastructure of England, in the period to the Norman Conquest of 1066. This is a key period in the history of Britain, comprising the demise of Roman control of the provinces of Britannia and ending in a politically unified but still culturally diverse England.

         

        This module will examine the major categories of site and principal themes explored by archaeologists and historians studying this period. The course is structured to focus attention in the first semester upon the infrastructure of landscape and types of site of human occupation, moving through to details of life-experience, social relationships and politics, production and trade, and ideology and art in semester 2. The introductory lecture will consider the definition of the period and topic and the historiography of archaeological approaches to them. Both the lectures and the seminars will seek to illustrate the relationship between general topics of debate and specific sites or finds.

         

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS2202
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        A module to introduce students to selected techniques of

        archaeological surveying and geophysical prospecting

        Assessment

        • Practical-based assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeHS2305
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits10

        The Later Bronze Age marks a major transformation in the archaeological record of Britain and Ireland. Patterns of ritual behaviour, burial, settlement and artefact use all begin to change. This single module explores these major transformations which see the establishment of settled life, agrarian landscapes and the consolidation of social differentiation, especially in southern Britain. These themes are investigated by individual case studies. 

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS2306
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        The Iron Age sees the transformation of the archaeological landscape of Britain and Ireland and the beginning of the written record for the islands. This double module is designed to provide students with a detailed understanding of the archaeology of the period. It will focus on the technology, settlements and monuments in Britain and on the nature of social change during the period.

         

        It aims to provide a survey of the archaeological and historical evidence and to provide a detailed critique of how archaeologists use the primary evidence derived from artefacts and excavations to build explanatory models of society and individual action. 

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS2311
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        The Neolithic marks the beginning of one of the most significant transformations in human behaviour with the shift from small and transient hunter-gatherer populations to the emergence of settled and growing populations. This single module introduces students to the wealth of evidence for the Neolithic period in Europe. By means of selected case studies, it investigates both the initial spread and subsequent diverse development of Neolithic societies over a long time scale - the sort of study of human behaviour which is only possible through archaeology.

        A wide-ranging, thematic introduction to the archaeology of the Neolithic period in central and western Europe (excluding Britain and Ireland), with the principal focus on recurrent aspects of Neolithic existence, from dwelling to mortuary practice. Attention is also given to selected regional case studies, and to regional research traditions.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS2340
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        As Roman Britain disintegrated and barbarian Germanic groups carved up the richest parts of the old province independent Celtic kingdoms were created in the West and North of Britain.  This course is designed to provide a better understanding of the archaeological evidence for the development of ‘Celtic Britain' under Anglo-Saxon encroachment, the emergence of kingdoms throughout the ‘Celtic West' and the emergence of Christianity.  It will follow the material evidence in each area to demonstrate its variability and the problems of recognition which affect different areas at different times.  The process of Anglo-Saxon expansion and the weakness in evidence after the 8th century in much of western Britain means that the course focuses on the period 400-800.  The very rich Irish evidence and the evidence of Scandinavian settlement in the Viking Age is only referred to in passing.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS2350
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        History of Archaeological Thought introduces students to the development of archaeology as a discipline that critically interprets the materials of the past. In showing the broad outlines of how the subject has developed, mainly but not exclusively within the last 40 or so years, it demonstrates the central role of theory in trying to make sense of the past, and in coming to terms with our own starting point in the present. This module will help you to use your knowledge of period and other modules to inform your reading and writing about theory and interpretation, and vice versa. It will cover the history of archaeology from the earlier part of the twentieth century onwards, concentrating on developments from 1960 to the present. It will look first at the grand narrative of the development of thought in prehistory, and then turn to the rather different histories of ‘historical’ archaeologies (Classical and Medieval). 

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 25%
        • Written assessment: 25%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeHS2373
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        Preservation and decay of organic materials in burial, post-excavation or museum contexts is closely linked to environmental factors such as light, biological agents, pH and availability of oxygen and water. Managing organic collections in the long term requires manipulation of the environment to minimise deterioration. Making effective management and conservation decisions is only possible with understanding of materials and empirical evidence of the success of interventive and preventive treatments. Into the preservation equation must be input the needs of stakeholders, such as the public, and the practicalities of implementing decisions.

         

        This module is designed to produce students who have a critical mindset, can apply knowledge and understanding to unknown materials using underpinning principles, can evaluate evidence and can make pragmatic cost benefit decisions. Students will also be able to identify organic materials and recognise their technology of manufacture, chemical and physical properties and decay mechanisms. They will have an understanding of preventive and interventive conservation treatments and how to evaluate success in the short, medium and long term.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS2387
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This course is primarily intended to introduce students to the material evidence (art and archaeology) of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age in the Aegean (c.3000-1100 B.C.), and the historical questions that have emerged as study of these periods has developed. It will also attempt to address certain questions, principally the causes for the emergence of the palace states in the second millennium B.C., the nature of the palace societies and state structures that emerged, and the reasons for the eventual disappearance of this kind of state. Minoan, Mycenaean and Cycladic art is considered in relation to questions of religious political authority, as well as ‘culture’ and ethnicity. 

        REQUISITES: Pre-requisite Modules: HS2123

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 25%
        • Written assessment: 25%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeHS2389
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module is concerned with the art and archaeology of Classical Greece (479–323 BC) and with the questions that arise from the study of these material remains. The emphasis will be on Classical cities (particularly Athens), and on how archaeology can help to improve our understanding of this crucial moment in Greek history. The module will also endeavour to combine traditional topics (e.g. sculpture, architecture, vase-painting) and modern concerns (e.g. gender and the household; burial and society; survey, landscape and the countryside).

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS2407
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits10

        Over 10 weeks students will gain the skills and knowledge to create process and archive digital images effectively in an archaeological environment. Students will learn how to use a digital SLR camera to capture images both out on location and in the studio. They will learn the fundamentals of photographic exposure, how to use manual settings on a camera, how to use flash and other studio lighting techniques. Students will also gain a broader knowledge of digital image making and the ability to manipulate images using Photoshop They will also rename and archive images effectively using a basic database.

        Assessment

        • Portfolio: 100%
        Module codeHS2410
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        This module examines the archaeology and history of the reign of Akhenaten and those surrounding it.  The history and background of this period of apparent religious iconoclasm and political upheaval are examined in the light of the archaeological evidence and students are asked to judge the significance of this ‘Amarna period’.  The site of Tell el-Amarna and its archaeological significance are also examined.

        Assessment

        • Class test: 10%
        • Written assessment: 40%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS2414
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits10

        Over 10 weeks students will gain the skills and knowledge to create process and archive digital images effectively in an archaeological environment. Students will learn how to use a digital SLR camera to capture images both out on location and in the studio. They will learn the fundamentals of photographic exposure, how to use manual settings on a camera, how to use flash and other studio lighting techniques. Students will also gain a broader knowledge of digital image making and the ability to manipulate images using Photoshop They will also rename and archive images effectively using a basic database.

        Assessment

        • Portfolio: 100%
        Module codeHS2418
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits10

        A theory and practical module in which students learn about, gain practical skills in, and implement spatial techniques and technologies applicable to archaeological and ancient historical research. The module introduces students to key ways of using selected tools and computers in the collection, presentation and interpretation of spatial data. Students will learn the basic principles behind mapping, the use of the Global Positioning System and Geographical Information Systems and will gain skills in the use of hardware and computer applications pertinent to each.

         

        Students will produce a portfolio of work demonstrating skills in the use of selected spatial techniques and technologies. Spatial data relevant to archaeological/ancient historical research will be collected that will benefit from the use of computer-based spatial tools. Students will be expected to demonstrate that they can locate appropriate data, evaluate its reliability, use appropriate computer-based applications and integrate these to come to relevant conclusions in their portfolio.

         

        Assessment

        • Portfolio: 100%
        Module codeHS2419
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits10

        A practical based module in which students learn about, develop practical skills in and implement Geographic Information Systems in archaeology and ancient history projects. The module enables students to develop skills in the presentation, interpretation and analysis of spatial data.

         

        Students will select an area of study that will benefit from careful selection and integration of archaeological/ancient historical data and Geographic Information Systems. Typically, the focus of research will be close to something already under study by the student so that the majority of their work for this course will be the use of computer-based applications. Students will be expected to demonstrate that they can locate appropriate spatial data, evaluate its reliability, use Geographic Information Systems and integrate these to come to relevant archaeological/ancient historical conclusions in a 2,000 word project.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS2421
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module will consider the way that museums and other heritage organisations manage and care for the collections that they hold. The module will consider a range of agents of deterioration which contribute to the decay and loss of collections. Students will examine a range of strategies, from technical to managerial to understand and modify conditions to create acceptable levels of care for collections.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeHS2428
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        Summary

        This module aims to bring an understanding of how heritage is created and curated in the present. You will be made aware of the theories surrounding learning and communication. You will investigate heritage as a culture and how it interfaces with the public. You will look at how knowledge is disseminated from internal institutions (e.g. museums, universities) to wider audiences.  You will also examine the value of producing material that is relevant to the general public, and the broader benefits of doing so, to society as a whole. Students will gain an appreciation of how heritage can be used to affect public perception and how it can sometimes be misinterpreted, misused or misplaced.

        Students will examine case studies in a variety of different area of heritage. The focus for the module will be on action learning. In small teams you will design, run, evaluate and reflect on, a public outreach event at a school, in a public area, or via digital media.

        The course will be mixture of lectures, workshops and project work, allowing both the theory and the methods of communication to be taught with students spending the time during the second semester preparing their project.  Assessment is based on 1500 words (or equivalent) project resource and a project report (2500 words). 

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Written assessment: 70%
        Module codeHS2429
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits10

        An introduction to how archaeological artefacts are recorded for archival and publication purposes, using a range of techniques and conventions for illustrating different materials. To introduce how archaeological sections are recorded in the field and then prepared for publication, using the conventions to show the variations in the recorded archaeological contexts. To introduce digital illustration techniques using industry standardised software, Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop CC (Creative Cloud), in preparing and cleaning up artwork for presentation and publication.

        Assessment

        • Portfolio: 100%
        Module codeHS2430
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits10

        An introduction to how archaeological artefacts are recorded for archival and publication purposes, using a range of techniques and conventions for illustrating different materials. To introduce how archaeological sections are recorded in the field and then prepared for publication, using the conventions to show the variations in the recorded archaeological contexts. To introduce digital illustration techniques using industry standardised software, Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop CC (Creative Cloud), in preparing and cleaning up artwork for presentation and publication.       

        Assessment

        • Portfolio: 100%
        Module codeHS2431
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        Pottery is one of the most ubiquitous artefacts recovered from archaeological sites. This module will provide students with the skills required to undertake an analysis of a ceramic assemblage through a mixture of practical workshops and lectures. The course will cover the various stages of pottery manufacture and how we are able to identify these archaeologically and offer opportunities for experimental work to allow students to gain a greater understanding of the processes of ceramic production. The course will also cover how archaeologists go about using ceramics to understand site formation processes and date archaeological sites. Students will be required to work with a ceramic assemblage and produce a report, allowing them to learn and put into practice data handling and presentation skills.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeHS2432
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module is an introduction to bioarchaeology, a subject which includes both biomolecular and other biological techniques applied to archaeological material. The module provides a broad understanding of the principles and methods of biochemistry, isotope chemistry and molecular biology to the study of archaeology. The lectures introduce the uses of stable isotopes to examine ancient diets and migration, and methods to analyse and interpret food residues. The emerging discipline of proteomics – using distinctive patters of proteins to identify species is also introduced.  The uses and abuses of ancient DNA and its integration with modern genetics and considers the interplay between forensic science and biomolecular archaeology.

        The course will introduce the scientific principles on which such work relies and will assess the utility and applications of such methods in present day archaeology. The benefits of integrating all aspects or archaeological information will be stressed and the general philosophical principles of scientific and archaeological investigations will be considered, for example the relationship between the scientific analysis of diet and the archaeological reconstruction of food will be explored.  The module aims to give students basic practical experience in some of the scientific techniques involved, and the opportunity to see the techniques of dietary reconstruction applied. The module is assessed by essay and coursework, and includes a journal club that allows students to explore a current debate in bioarchaeology.  

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeHS3103
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module introduces students to the essential skills that every ancient historian needs: finding evidence, evaluating it, using it to construct arguments, and presenting their ideas effectively. You will learn about the different types of evidence that are available to ancient historians, such as literary texts, archaeological evidence, images, inscriptions and other documents, and how to evaluate them. You will also examine the different ways in which ancient history is presented and consumed today, in scholarship, on the web, in museums, and in the media and popular culture. You will practise the skills needed for successful academic writing and learn to use the standard conventions of the discipline. By the end of the module, you will be able to do ancient history, rather than just reading about it.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 25%
        • Written assessment: 25%
        • Portfolio: 50%
        Module codeHS3104
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        The literature, buildings and artefacts that form our evidence for the ancient world have survived for a variety of reasons, and their significance to us and to our understanding of the ancient world has shifted as our approaches to studying the past have changed. In this module, you will be introduced to some of the most important and intriguing examples of evidence from the ancient world, and learn about how and why they have survived, their history since antiquity, the debates that have surrounded them, and the different ways in which modern scholars have used them to understand the ancient world. The lectures will discuss a wide variety of significant works of literature, archaeological sites, and other artefacts, such as Thucydides’ History, the Rosetta Stone, or Trajan’s Column. You will then choose your own piece of evidence and work in a group to design and complete a project that explains its history and significance to a wider audience through oral presentations and a final presentation in a format of your choosing.

        Assessment

        • Presentation: 20%
        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Written assessment: 60%
        Module codeHS3105
        LevelL4
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module is an introduction to the history of the ancient Near Eastern, Greek, and Roman worlds in the period c. 1000 BCE to 323 BCE. Students will explore and examine different sources available to historians, such as poetry, histories, inscriptions, and archaeological and visual evidence, and consider how we can use them to study political, economic, cultural, social and religious history. Topics covered will include the cultural dominance of Egypt in the Bronze Age, the superpowers of Assyria, Babylon and Persia, the emergence of city-states in Greece, and the rise to power of tyrants and the evolution of democracy in Athens. The course will explore the early civilizations of Italy, the rise of Rome and the ascendancy of Macedon and the spread of Hellenic culture into the Near East under Alexander. The module also focuses on the lives of men and women, warfare and the military, the role of religion in daily and civic life, artistic, intellectual, and scientific developments, and, importantly, the cultural and political interactions of these ancient civilizations. 

        Assessment

        • Presentation: 20%
        • Written assessment: 40%
        • Examination - autumn semester: 40%
        Module codeHS3106
        LevelL4
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        This module is an introduction to the history of the Mediterranean and Near Eastern worlds in the period 323 BCE to 680 CE. It focuses primarily on the Roman empire from its emergence as a major power to its transformation into the ‘Byzantine’ empire, but also covers the Hellenistic Kingdoms, the Persian empire, and the rise of the Arab empire with the birth of Islam in the seventh century CE. Topics covered will include the Successor Kingdoms which emerged in the aftermath of the death of Alexander the Great, the Hellenistic World, the rise and fall of the Roman Republic, Rome’s conflict with Carthage, the emergence and nature of imperial rule in Rome, culture in the Roman imperial period, the transformation of the Roman empire in late antiquity, the rise and fall of Sasanian Persia, the birth of Islam and the expansion of Arab power, and the survival of Rome as the ‘Byzantine’ empire. These topics will be explored and examined through the range of surviving sources available to historians, such as histories, biographies, letters, inscriptions, and archaeological and visual evidence.

        Assessment

        • Presentation: 20%
        • Written assessment: 40%
        • Examination - spring semester: 40%
        Module codeHS3322
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        This is an intensive module that enables students to develop their knowledge of Latin, building on the work done in HS3421 Reading Latin 1 or an equivalent beginners’ course. It introduces students to more advanced Latin vocabulary, grammar and syntax, with the aim of enabling them to read ancient works in the original language. The module provides the basis for more advanced study of Latin texts in HS3343/4 Latin Historical Texts.

        Assessment

        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        • Class test: 25%
        • Class test: 25%
        Module codeHS3324
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        This is an intensive module that enables students to develop their knowledge of ancient Greek, building on the work done in HS3423 Reading Greek 1 or an equivalent beginners’ course. It introduces students to more advanced Classical Greek vocabulary, grammar and syntax, with the aim of enabling them to read ancient works in the original language. The module provides the basis for more advanced study of Greek texts in HS3345/6 Greek Historical Texts.

           

        Assessment

        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        • Class test: 25%
        • Class test: 25%
        Module codeHS3335
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        The Principate created by Augustus ended the civil wars of the late Republic, and ushered in a new monarchical form of government that is often considered to have reached its apogee in the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian. This module uses historical writings and contemporary documents and monuments to examine the course of the Julio-Claudian and Flavian dynasties and their successors, and how under their control the Empire experienced a period of relative peace and prosperity. It considers the main developments and events of the period in Rome and the provinces, and charts the increasing importance of Rome’s provinces, both socially and politically. In addition, the course examines the images and ideologies of imperial government created at Rome, and the extent to which this government was accepted or rejected in the provinces.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 45%
        • Examination - spring semester: 45%
        • Practical-based assessment: 10%
        Module codeHS3336
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        Hadrian left Antoninus Pius a Roman Empire at its apogee. However, stability, peace and prosperity could not last for ever. Soon the empire was experiencing internal and external pressures, which culminated in a period of deep crisis, both political and economic, in the third century CE. From a cultural point of view, on the other hand, the period, often referred to as that of ‘the Second Sophistic’, was one of immense productivity, witnessing the activity of prolific authors such as the physician Galen, the satirist Lucian of Samosata, and the Christian Church Father Clement of Alexandria. This module uses a wealth of literary, epigraphic, papyrological, and material sources to explore this period of deep changes. It considers the main developments and events of the period, politically, socially, economically, religiously, and culturally. We will encounter an emperor philosopher, an empress chosen by horoscope, a Christian martyr roasted on a grill, an arch-hypochondriac, and star-wars fighters. This module will be taught in an interactive manner, with a high level of participation expected. A piece of creative writing (with clear criteria and guidance) is part of the assessment for this module.

         

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - autumn semester: 50%
        Module codeHS3337
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        The history of the later Roman empire is marked by rapid and dramatic change: the revolution in the position of Christianity in the empire, from persecuted cult to state religion; the ‘barbarian invasions’ of the fourth and fifth centuries, and the establishment of barbarian kingdoms within the territory of the Roman empire; the decline of Rome, but the emergence of vibrant new power centres, such as Constantinople; the splitting of the empire into two halves (East and West), and the collapse of the latter. How to understand this period has been central to the academic debate about it. Does it mark the ‘the decline and fall of the Roman empire’, or is it a period of transformation, witnessing the metamorphosis of the world of antiquity into a new ‘late antique’ world? In addition to considering the political, social and cultural transformations of the period the module devotes attention to the famous architects of these transformations, such as Constantine the Great, Theodosius I, and Attila the Hun. The module draws on, and discusses the nature of, the rich source material for the period: classicising histories, church histories, chronicles, court panegyrics and polemics, letter collections, legislation, inscriptions, art, and archaeology.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS3374
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        From the seventh century BC onwards, Greek society and politics underwent rapid and remarkable transformations, including the rise of the city-state, early settlement overseas, and the emergence of unique political and social structures in different Greek communities led by tyrants, kings and democrats. Greek elites and communities developed an increasing awareness of their identity, as they came into contact with foreign cultures and engaged in decisive conflicts with the Persian Empire. The dramatic success of the Greek states in the Persian Wars led to the development of competing claims to the leadership of Greece by Athens and Sparta. The rising power of the Athenian Empire was finally checked by the long and destructive ‘Peloponnesian War’ (431–404 BC). This module uses material from drama, poetry, philosophy, art, architecture and epigraphy to examine all these processes, with particular attention given to the Histories of the two greatest Greek historians, Herodotus and Thucydides.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS3376
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        Concerns over health and illness are universal, but every society, whether historical or contemporary, will define the notions of health and illness differently. This module concentrates on the Greek and Roman world from the fifth century BCE to the sixth century CE, with the aim of gaining a better understanding of Greek and Roman societies more generally. Indeed, no medical qualifications existed in the Greek and Roman world; anyone could become a healer. In such an environment, it was crucial for any head of household to know some medicine in order to gain the best treatment for his family. Through medical sources, we will explore important issues such as how the ancients conceived of their bodies, their identities (including gender identities), and their place in society and, more generally, in the physical world. A wealth of literary, epigraphic, papyrological, and visual sources are drawn upon to address the relevance of ancient medicine to social, economic, cultural, and even political history. This module will be taught in an interactive manner, with a high level of participation expected.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS3379
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        If today the Assyrians are remembered at all, they are usually encountered in two ways. There is their image in the Bible in which they are found as an imperial power which destroyed the kingdom of Israel and took the ‘twelve tribes’ into captivity. A generation later they attacked Jerusalem, the capital of Judah. It is this attack which inspired Lord Byron to write:

         

                 The Assyrians came down like a wolf on the fold

                 And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold.

         

        Largely in consequence of the Bible and of Byron’s poem, the Assyrians have the reputation for ruthless savagery. They have been much maligned. Certainly the Assyrians could be aggressive and merciless in their maintenance of order, but they were the defenders of civilization, not barbarian destroyers.

        This course explores the nature of life and thought during the time of Assyria’s apogee, when it ruled a huge empire stretching from northern Iraq to Anatolia and Egypt, and was governed from great cities such as Nineveh, and Nimrud. Through a combination of textual studies, archaeology and the examination of material culture, the course examines the ideology of empire and of kingship, as well as the literature, art, religion, and daily life of the Assyrians. Attention will also be given to the archaeological ‘rediscovery’ of Assyria and will analyse the recent destruction of Assyrian sites by ISIS, with an eye to the future progress of Assyriological research.

        Assessment

        • Portfolio: 40%
        • Written assessment: 60%
        Module codeHS3380
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        Though her prospects looked bleak in 404 BC in the aftermath of defeat by Sparta in the Peloponnesian War, Athens recovered her position in the Greek world remarkably swiftly. By the accession of Philip II to the Macedonian throne in 359 she had again become one of the most powerful cities in Greece and confident leader of an alliance of Aegean states, the Second Athenian League, founded in 378. By 321, however, the Greek world had been transformed by the political and military successes of Philip and his son, Alexander the Great. For Athens, defeat at the battle of Chaironeia in 338 was followed by loss of Empire, erosion of freedom and eventually, in 322, the installation of a Macedonian garrison and the extinction of democracy. Athens is the most richly documented Greek city at this period thanks primarily to two types of contemporary source: speeches in the lawcourts and Assembly, and inscriptions. With an emphasis throughout on these sources, the module will initially focus on the city’s external history to ca. 355 (including the Corinthian War and the Second Athenian League). It will then study Athens’ response to the growing power of Macedon, including the rivalry between Demosthenes and Aeschines, the “Lykourgan” programme for the regeneration of the city after Chaironeia and the rivalry between Lykourgos and Demades. The module will also analyse the ideology, key characteristics and institutional structure of the fourth-century democracy, both more richly documented, and more stable, than its fifth-century counterpart.

        :

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS3381
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        Ancient Greek theatre is a form of stage art, which, with its physicality, popular character, and poetry, crosses boundaries of time and culture, often with shocking immediacy, making eternal personal and public questions look fresh and relevant in all periods of time. The coexistence of the eternal-universal and the contemporary-local in Greek plays has often been framed in theory through the question of the autonomy of the work of art vs. the work’s close relationship with its social and historical context. Ancient Greek plays were universal, but at the same time intimately connected with the institutions and ideologies of the society that produced them. By focusing on selected tragedies and comedies, this module will explore the invaluable contribution of the study of ancient Greek dramatic production to our knowledge of the social and political history of ancient Greece; more specifically: political and social institutions, such as religion and cult, Athenian democracy and imperial ideology, tensions between the elite and the masses, gender and sexuality, the representation of the Other, the relationship between the domestic and the public, the individual and the communal.   

        Assessment

        • Presentation: 25%
        • Report: 25%
        • Examination - autumn semester: 50%
        Module codeHS3382
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        “Pomp, Pageantry, Spectacle Unsurpassed” –  Hollywood had a passion for the ancient world, and in the many epic movies produced during its Golden Age (1915-1965), the film studios  used every device they could muster to wow audiences with spectacle - all to convince them that they were voyeurs of “living history”. The majesty of the epic genre was created in the on-screen chariot races, slave markets, and gladiatorial contests; it was there in the vastness and monumentality of Rome under the Caesars, the pyramids of the Pharaohs, or the Jewish temple in Jerusalem.  The glamour was provided by extravagant costumes and the casting of movie stars like Rita Hayworth as Salome, Kirk Douglas as Spartacus, and Victor Mature as Samson. Nobody can think of Cleopatra without visualizing Elizabeth Taylor; she outlives history just as Charlton Heston outlives Ben-Hur and Moses. And Peter Ustinov will perpetually be seen in the guise of Nero, just as Nero will always be envisaged as Peter Ustinov.  This unique and lively course will show how in the years between 1915 and 1965 Hollywood carefully created the modern perception of antiquity; it analyses how producers, art directors, costumiers, musicians, publicity agents, film stars, and, inevitably, “a cast of thousands” literally designed the ancient world from scratch.

        This course traces the development of the epic film genre in Hollywood and will question how the American film industry approached, used and marketed the ancient world. The course will question the political, social and cultural use of the past in Hollywood cinema, as well as examining issues such as masculinity, spectacle, sex and sexuality, advertising and marketing, film production, and film design. This course focuses on epic movies of Hollywood’s Golden Age as a vehicle by which we can understand the importance cinematic uses and recreations of the past in modern culture. 

        Assessment

        • Portfolio: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS3383
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        The life of the last queen of the Ptolemaic Dynasty coincides with the twilight of the Hellenistic Period as well as the Roman Republic, and she ranks among the most influential figures in the history of both. This module explores the world of Cleopatra VII by situating her in the context of Ptolemaic Egypt, Hellenistic royal women, and the late Roman Republic. Both her external relations – including her famous liaisons with Julius Caesar & Mark Antony – as well as her domestic policy will be considered through the analysis of a variety of literary, epigraphic, archaeology, and numismatic evidence.

        The ancient and modern legacy of the queen and her impact on popular culture will be traced from Virgil to HBO’s Rome with an eye to separating her later repute from her historical persona. This module will provide students with a firm grounding in Hellenistic as well as Roman Republican History by treating Cleopatra as a figure that bridges the gap between these two worlds.

        Assessment

        • Portfolio: 45%
        • Examination - spring semester: 45%
        • Written assessment: 10%
        Module codeHS3384
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        This module aims to provide students with knowledge of the body of evidence for the history and archaeology of resistance to Roman rule.  The course will examine the history, archaeology and ideology of a chronological series of rebellions and revolts against Roman power from the Late Republic to the 3rd century AD. We will finish with an investigation into the reception of these rebellions and explore both how they engaged the Roman imagination and also remain a key part of local and national identities today.  The course strives to provide students with a broad picture of Roman power and the resistance to it, and to what degree we can understand local identities, nationalist movements and resistance in the narrative and evidence for these rebellions.  The course will cover aspects as diverse as colonialism, post-colonialism, religion, trade, politics and warfare across the Roman Empire from Britain to the Near East.  The aims include furthering understanding of how the study of Roman imperialism and local resistance has advanced in recent scholarship; of the history of local identities and their importance for the political, social and cultural history of the ancient world.  We will also look at the theoretical implications for the study of ancient concepts of empire and the enemy.  It will encourage student research and the pursuit of specific personal interests within the remit of the module topic.  Students will therefore be required to engage with political theory, cultural, social and economic ideology as well as military and religious history

        Assessment

        • Portfolio: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeHS3385
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        Roman religious rituals appear utterly traditional, yet were in fact subject to constant change and development, to influence from the Greek world, and to control by the state. The module studies religion in Rome and Italy from the regal period to the early imperial period. Principal topics of study include the main features of religious beliefs and practices as they originated and as they developed during the period when Rome became a major world power, and how Rome reacted to contacts with other religious systems.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 45%
        • Examination - spring semester: 45%
        • Practical-based assessment: 10%
        Module codeHS3421
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module is an intensive introduction to the Latin language, intended for complete beginners. It introduces students to the grammar and vocabulary of Latin. Although the focus is on Classical Latin (the language used by writers such as Plautus, Cicero and Caesar), this provides the basis for the study of medieval Latin. Students will learn to read and translate simple Latin sentences, with the ultimate aim of reading ancient works in the original language. The module provides the basis for further study of Latin in HS3322 Reading Latin 2.

        Assessment

        • Examination - autumn semester: 50%
        • Class test: 25%
        • Class test: 25%
        Module codeHS3423
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module is an intensive introduction to the ancient Greek language, intended for complete beginners. It introduces students to the script, grammar and vocabulary of Classical Greek. Although the focus is on Attic Greek (the language used by writers such as Thucydides, Plato and Aristophanes), this provides the basis for the study of other dialects (e.g. the Ionic of Herodotus) or Greek of different periods (e.g. Homeric, Hellenistic or Byzantine Greek). Students will learn to read and translate simple Greek sentences, with the ultimate aim of reading ancient works in the original language. The module provides the basis for further study of Greek in HS3324 Reading Greek 2.

        Assessment

        • Class test: 25%
        • Class test: 25%
        • Examination - autumn semester: 50%
        Module codeHS3424
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        In this module students study one or more Latin texts of historical relevance. HS 3424 (autumn semester) is usually centered on the reading of Augustus’ Res Gestae and other excerpts from Suetonius, Livy and/or Tacitus, while HS 3425 (spring semester) focuses on a different topic which may include the reading of inscriptions and other direct evidence. Texts are studied for their linguistic content (grammar, syntax, vocabulary) and for their importance as historical evidence. Classes involve translation and linguistic comment as well as discussion of the historical context and significance of the text.

         

        Assessment

        • Examination - autumn semester: 60%
        • Written assessment: 40%
        Module codeHS3425
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        In this module students study one or more Latin texts of historical relevance. HS 3424 (autumn semester) is usually centered on the reading of Augustus’ Res Gestae and other excerpts from Suetonius, Livy and/or Tacitus, while HS 3425 (spring semester) focuses on a different topic which may include the reading of inscriptions and other direct evidence. Texts are studied for their linguistic content (grammar, syntax, vocabulary) and for their importance as historical evidence. Classes involve translation and linguistic comment as well as discussion of the historical context and significance of the text.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 40%
        • Examination - spring semester: 60%
        Module codeHS3426
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        In this module students study one or more Greek texts of historical relevance. Either HS3426 (autumn semester) or HS3427 (spring semester) focuses on a literary text by an author such as Herodotus, Xenophon or Lysias while the other module focuses on inscriptions. Texts are studied for their linguistic content (grammar, syntax, vocabulary) and for their importance as historical evidence. Classes involve translation and linguistic comment as well as discussion of the historical context and significance of the text.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 40%
        • Examination - autumn semester: 60%
        Module codeHS3427
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        In this module students study one or more Greek texts of historical relevance. Either HS3426 (autumn semester) or HS3427 (spring semester) focuses on a literary text by an author such as Herodotus, Xenophon or Lysias while the other module focuses on inscriptions. Texts are studied for their linguistic content (grammar, syntax, vocabulary) and for their importance as historical evidence. Classes involve translation and linguistic comment as well as discussion of the historical context and significance of the text.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 40%
        • Examination - spring semester: 60%
        Module codeHS4308
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        Death preoccupies every society and people’s deep-rooted beliefs regarding their mortality are reflected in the rituals that surround the disposal of the dead. This module examines how the dead were treated in the Roman world and how perceptions of death and the afterlife changed from the first century BC to the fourth/fifth centuries AD. The historical and archaeological sources will be explored together and students should expect to acquaint themselves with the evidence from burials, cemeteries and tombstones as well as the work of contemporary writers. Anthropological studies of more recent societies’ treatment of the dead are an important part of studying mortuary and funerary archaeology, and case-studies from modern times will be explored for useful analogies with the Roman world.

        The aims of this module are to explore Roman attitudes towards death and how these were manifested in the burial of the dead from the first century BC to the period after the adoption of Christianity in the fourth century. Furthermore, to develop the knowledge and skills required to understand and interpret the disparate archaeological, historical and anthropological evidence relating to this subject. Ultimately the goal is to use this material in order to better understand contemporary Roman beliefs associated with death.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS4336
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        In order to study the ancient world effectively, we have to be able to use a wide range of sources, from literature to inscriptions, archaeology to art. This module introduces students to the different technical and analytical skills they will need for successful evidence-based study of the ancient world at degree level. Students will learn how to analyse and evaluate evidence, including different literary genres, archaeological material, coins, inscriptions, papyri and images. There will be hands-on opportunities to study evidence and discuss it in practical workshops, to evaluate and attempt to reconcile contradictory evidence, and to consider how different versions of the past can be constructed from different interpretations of the evidence. The module will prepare students for confident and independent use of sources in their other Ancient History modules.

        Assessment

        • Portfolio: 3%
        • Written assessment: 70%
        • Portfolio: 3%
        • Portfolio: 3%
        • Portfolio: 3%
        • Portfolio: 3%
        • Portfolio: 3%
        • Portfolio: 4%
        • Portfolio: 4%
        • Portfolio: 4%
        Module codeHS4366
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        Warfare was part of normal life for almost all ancient Greeks, and military developments often had the most profound political and social effects. This module examines literary, archaeological and visual evidence for the military, social, economic and cultural aspects of ancient Greek warfare, and focuses on changes in the modes of combat — from Homeric and hoplite warfare to the increasingly sophisticated integration of strategy and tactics and of cavalry and infantry realised by Philip II and Alexander the Great of Macedon and the successor kingdoms of the Hellenistic period.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeHS4370
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        What was it like to live in one of the greatest cities in the world? At its height, Rome was the largest and most important city in the world, situated at the heart of a great empire, with all the benefits and disadvantages that came with that. This module provides an opportunity to study the lives of both the rich and the poor of Rome by drawing on the wealth of literary, epigraphic and archaeological evidence that survives. Topics will include the topography of the city, how the city was administered, “Bread and Circuses”, the various forms of leisure activity and more ‘down to earth’ subjects such as the quality of housing, water supply and the city drains. Students will be encouraged to study the importance of social institutions in public and private life, and the changes that occurred from Republic to Empire. The module will also provide an opportunity to consider the way the ancient city of Rome has been portrayed in the modern world.

        Assessment

        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeRT0101
        LevelL4
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        This module takes up the study of the origin of religious ideas and practices that are significant to this day. It moves from the very beginnings of religious traditions, often in the distant past, to contemporary issues. You will take up the study of a variety of religions. You will then explore the relevance of key ideas and practices drawn from these traditions in the modern world. These are ideas and practices that may have had considerable political or social significance or are the subject of controversy. The module emphasizes the need to examine the social context of religious thought and activity both in the past and the present. It also demonstrates the continuing importance of religious ideas in the shaping of contemporary ideologies and identities.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 15%
        • Written assessment: 35%
        • Examination - autumn semester: 50%
        Module codeRT0102
        LevelL4
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        How do we study religion? What are the key themes and issues in its exploration? This module introduces you to the study of religion by means of research-led case studies.  You will be introduced to key issues and current methods and theories by working with members of academic staff on a series of three projects that directly relate to their research specialisms. You will be required to work in groups as well as individually to address critical issues in the study of religion. This is your opportunity, in your first year of study, to develop a real sense of research and the issues that surround it. The course is broken down into three key areas, within which the projects will be based. These are: Religion in the Contemporary World (ranging from Britain to the Far East); Pre-modern Asian religions (mainly focusing on Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain traditions) and Religion and Culture in Late Antiquity (encompassing Christian, Islamic and Jewish traditions to the ninth century CE). Each project will take up a theme or issues within these three broad areas. 

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Written assessment: 40%
        Module codeRT0105
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        The Bible is one of the most influential books ever written, affecting history, literature and art, not to mention social debates down to the present day. It is also considered to be a holy book by Jews, Christians and Muslims. This module will introduce students to the literature and religions of the Bible and help them begin to develop the use of the critical skills and techniques of Biblical Studies. Students will engage with some of the approaches which have characterised scholarly work on the Old and New Testaments in the past hundred years. Through interacting with selected texts, students will gain familiarity with the main literary genres of the Bible, its contents and contexts.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeRT0106
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module enables students to gain an appreciation of the history and thought of Christianity throughout the centuries. It sets the central ideas of Christianity within an overall historical framework.

        Assessment

        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeRT1201
        LevelL5
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - autumn semester: 50%
        Module codeRT1202
        LevelL5
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        RT1202 Elementary Sanskrit II follows on from RT1201 Elementary Sanskrit I with additional vocabulary, grammar and script. The module introduces students to reading unsimplified texts in the original Sanskrit, reading the texts in Roman and/or devanagariscripts.

        Assessment

        • Examination - spring semester: 100%
        Module codeRT1203
        LevelL5
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        The double module RT 1203 is designed to provide an introduction to elementary Classical Arabic grammar and to develop skills in reading the early Makkan suras of the Qur’an and early Arabic historical texts.

        Arabic is a language spoken throughout the Middle East and North Africa.  It is also widely read in South Asia and Africa because of the influence of Islam whose scripture, the Qur’an, has had a far-reaching effect on religious thought since the seventh century A.D.  A knowledge of Classical Arabic opens the way to understanding a world civilisation that has produced important literature in historical writing, poetry and philosophy.  Arabic belongs to the Semitic family of languages, whose long history embraces ancient languages of the Near East such as Akkadian, Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic, and modern ones like Amharic, the written and spoken tongue of present-day Ethiopia.  Unlike English, the Arabic alphabet is written in a cursive script from right to left and has no vowels as such.  Consequently it can be a difficult language to learn in the early stages.  Once mastered, however, it will allow you to penetrate an important branch of world literature and the everyday life of the Middle East.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - autumn semester: 50%
        Module codeRT1204
        LevelL5
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        The aim of this double module is to introduce students to the script, the reading, writing and transliteration, basic vocabulary  and basic grammar of Biblical Hebrew, so as to give a secure foundation  for the study of further language and selected tests in Biblical Hebrew II.

        Assessment

        • Examination - spring semester: 100%
        Module codeRT1227
        LevelL5
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module will introduce students to the early history of Buddhism and will cover (approximately) the first millennium of the religion’s development from the assumed lifetime of the Buddha to full-fledged Mahayana Buddhism and the emerging esoteric tradition (Vajrayana or Mantrayana) in the 5th / 6th century AD. It will give an overview of the historical contexts in which certain strands of Buddhism evolved over the centuries and will also focus on the wider spread (mission) of the religion beyond the borders of South Asia (India) into Central Asia and China. The module is intended to give the students a solid foundation and understanding of the Buddhist traditions in their historical development in all strands of cultural life: literature, art, architecture, the life and practices of the monastic community and the laypeople, the most important doctrinal developments. Through the introduction and discussion of primary sources (texts, archaeological and art historical sources) the importance of the different strands of these sources, of their careful interpretation but also of their limitedness and restriction as a means of understanding Buddhist history will become evident. At the same time students will develop a clear understanding of the diversity of Buddhist traditions in their concrete historical settings.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeRT1300
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        Not that long ago, it was easy for journalists and editors to ignore religion. But the same trends and events that have brought renewed interest in the sociology of religion have driven media interest as well. The attacks of 11 September 2001, sometimes framed as a ‘media event’, made it clear that religion matters and religion makes good copy. We will discuss what makes religion both problematic and important for news coverage, assessing the frequent association of religion and violence. We will examine scholarship on how various religious traditions are covered in the news, paying particular attention to Islam and Christianity but encompassing all traditions, as well as more challenging concepts such as militant atheism and the so-called secular sacred. Students will evaluate this coverage themselves, critiquing news about religion. As we conclude the course, we will discuss the quality of religious literacy among journalists and what kinds of journalistic processes contribute to the coverage of religion in the news, at the same time asking whether and in what ways religious practitioners can be media literate.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 30%
        • Examination - autumn semester: 70%
        Module codeRT1327
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module critically investigates a number of debates and topics relating to Muslims and the contemporary world.  We shall focus upon Muslims in liberal democratic societies, especially Britain.  We shall look at two concepts: identity and prejudice and consider how these map onto the case of Muslims in Britain and democratic societies.  In this way, the module will enable you to engage with a range of issues affecting Islam and Muslims in the contemporary context: gender, youth, sacred space, citizenship, freedom of expression and politics.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeRT1357
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        How are issues related to ethics and morality to be understood in light of Islamic scripture, law, theology, tradition and Muslim society? Is there a morality independent of God? Why is there suffering and disability? What does Islam say about euthanasia, suicide, abortion, brain death and war? What can these tell us about what it means to be human in Islam? How has Darwin’s evolution theory affected this understanding of the human in Islam? Where does environmentalism fit in to an Islamic understanding of cosmology? We will explore the answers to these questions and many more in this module through lectures and various teaching and learning methods. This module compliments RT7317 Christian Social Ethics Today and RT1345 Gender and Sexuality: Islamic Perspectives.  

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeRT1362
        LevelL6
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        Students will be expected to have successfully completed RT1110 Further Elementary Arabic or RT1204 Elementary Arabic II.

        Following on from those Arabic modules, this module continues the study of Arabic grammar and syntax leading to the reading/translating/interpretation of classical Arabic texts.

        Realistically, students should only consider this module if they have achieved a pass at 60% or above in RT1110 or RT1204.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 20%
        • Examination - spring semester: 80%
        Module codeRT2106
        LevelL4
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module will introduce students to the literature of the Bible and the core understanding and critical skills of Biblical Studies. We will sample approaches which have characterised scholarly work on the Old and New Testaments in the past hundred years. Students will gain familiarity with the main literary genres of the Bible, its contents and contexts, and consider the foundational role which the Bible plays in faith communities.

        Assessment

        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeRT2203
        LevelL5
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        The aims and outcomes of this module are directly related to, and build upon, those of the level 4 module: The Bible in Today’s World. Modern biblical critical methods are considered in detail as well as a number of modern hermeneutical perspectives. The process of biblical exegesis is taught and biblical critical skills and hermeneutical perspectives are explored. The knowledge and skills acquired on this module are applied to set biblical texts in the expectation that students will complete the module equipped to apply such skills to any kind of biblical literature.

        Assessment

        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeRT2307
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module is designed to involve the student in a sophisticated appraisal of Biblical hermeneutics. The hermeneutic of the biblical authors and of biblical interpreters will be examined in close detail. The use of the Bible in the contemporary Church will be addressed via a consideration of the pastoral possibilities of the Bible. 

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeRT3207
        LevelL5
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This core course will enable students to engage in informed study of the four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles; to understand the progress of critical scholarship over the past hundred years in relation to the study of these texts; and, through some thematic study, to relate material in the Gospels and Acts to its wider New Testament and theological context.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeRT3209
        LevelL5
        SemesterAutumn Semester
        Credits20

        The module is aimed at introducing students to a selection of medium level New Testament Greek texts. Students are given opportunity

        - to deepen their practice in reading, translating and interpreting New Testament Greek texts,

        - to develop their grasp of Greek grammatical forms,

        - to develop their ability effectively to use lexical, theological and other critical searches in their translation work,

        - to understand and use the critical apparatus in Greek New Testament and/or other critical editions and to apply textual criticism

        - to acquire basic critical and analytical skills to interpret New Testament and other Greek texts and to practice Biblical exegesis

        - to acquire knowledge of relevant current and past scholarship, and critical and analytical skills to evaluate such scholarship

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeRT4320
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        Worship is central to Christian faith and life, as it is to most religious traditions.  This module explores Christian worship from a variety of perspectives, such as theological, historical, anthropological, aesthetic and pastoral.  By focusing this exploration on a number of significant issues relating to Christian worship in the contemporary context, the module seeks to deepen students’ understanding of the lived and experienced reality of Christian worship today.  This understanding will be of value to those preparing to lead worship themselves, as well as to other students of theology and religious studies who want to gain insight into this core religious activity.  The module values the diverse starting points of different groups of students and seeks to make this diversity part of the learning experience.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 25%
        • Written assessment: 75%
        Module codeRT4322
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

         The module aims to enable students to:.

        1. recognise the historical, biblical and theological significance of  community in the Christian tradition
        2. identify and critically reflect on  spiritual disciplines to be nurtured within a community of faith
        3. examine the historical, biblical and theological basis for a minister as a spiritual guide within community
        4. explore the significance of ideas such as discernment, detachment and passivity to Christian Spirituality
        5. examine the  historical tradition of spiritual direction in the Christian Church

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 100%
        Module codeRT4325
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        Money, sex and have been powerful forces shaping church and society through history. This module will explore the economic, gendered, and social space of the early church. It will consider such issues as: the political implications of Jesus’ message in the Gospels; the implicit status hierarchies in the New Testament church; singleness, celibacy and the suspicion of sex; the conflict of wealth and poverty; the incorporation and exclusion of women in church leadership; and the construction of the Christian male. Through this matrix of core issues, the first Christians sought to define themselves both over against, and in continuity with, structures, models, and assumptions in their social context. Drawing on sociological and historical methods, the module will explore these key elements of the social history of the first Christians through their literature in the New Testament and beyond (up to c. 200CE).

        Assessment

        • Presentation: 15%
        • Examination - spring semester: 35%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeRT5204
        LevelL5
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        An exploration of the origins, development and contemporary relevance of the core Christian beliefs concerning God as Trinity, Christ, Holy Spirit, Salvation and Eschatology, from Biblical through to Contemporary Times, highlighting critical issues around doctrinal renewal, and issues affecting the life of church today and its relation to culture and society.

        The module aims to

        1. enhance critical and empathetic understanding of how Christian beliefs hold together, by exploring in context various key
        2. enable an approach to key Christian doctrines that releases them as resources for engagement with experience and practice, reflection and constructive contribution to culture and society.
        3. enable a critical and reflective understanding of Christian life and practice by relating it to key Christian accounts of God, humanity and their interaction, expressed in the doctrine of the Trinity and accounts of the person and nature of Jesus Christ.
        4. enable critical understanding of Christian life and practice by relating it to key Christian versions of ‘salvation’ in history and experience, particularly focusing on ‘atonement’ theory, the place and role of the Holy Spirit in theology and selected approaches to questions about human and cosmic destiny

         

         

         

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeRT5205
        LevelL5
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        The Course is taught in three sections. the course is taught in three sections.

        The first examines the historical and contemporary understanding of the identity and purpose of the Christian Church. There is an examination of how it has evolved from its beginnings as a Jewish sect, through the extended Western era of Christendom when it was often at the centre of power and influence. There is a consideration of  phenomena of post-Christendom times that have been emerging in the last few decades. There is a critical evaluation of the ecumenical ‘Notes’ of the Church. The larger part of this section is spent in a detailed study of five core models of the historical Church. Finally there is consideration given to fresh expressions and emerging forms of Church, including new monasticism. 

        The second section examines the role of ministry in the Church, beginning with Biblical patterns and tracing the role of the clergy from the early Church, through Papal authority and the Reformation to current models in the Church today including chaplaincy and emerging models of pioneering ministry. Finally there is a critical evaluation of issues of contemporary debate such as the place of gender and homosexuality in relation to ordained Christian ministry.

        The final section explores the biblical paradigms of mission and traces the historical paradigm shifts in mission theology and praxis. It evaluates the tensions between evangelism and social action and critically evaluates current trends In missional thinking as they interact with local cultures and global concerns.

        The first examines the historical and contemporary understanding of the identity and purpose of the Christian Church. The second section examines critical issues of contemporary debate such as leadership and authority, gender and homosexuality in relation to ordained Christian ministry. The final section explores historical landmarks in the theology of mission and critically evaluates current theory and practice.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeRT5315
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module seeks to bring out the living and biographical character of theological ideas in Christian thinking and shows how modern writers and movements have concerned themselves with issues of commanding relevance in their time. In the traditional agenda this has included such topics as: the purpose and destiny of human lives and community, the grounds for meaning in the universe and understandings of redemption. In contemporary times it usually faces in the direction of such concerns as peace, justice, liberation and ecology, together with theologies emerging from a selection of ethnic and feminist perspectives, from the LGBT+ and Disabled communities, together with non-western and ecumenical contexts.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Examination - spring semester: 50%
        Module codeRT7317
        LevelL6
        SemesterSpring Semester
        Credits20

        This module provides a study of the bases for Christian Ethics in relation (e.g.) to the Bible, tradition, Natural Law or context, together with a consideration of Christian responses to selected contemporary issues such as abortion, euthanasia, sexuality, capitalism war, and the environment.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%
        Module codeRT7342
        LevelL6
        SemesterDouble Semester
        Credits20

        This module explores the significance for theology of the changing centre of gravity of world Christianity. With the majority of the world’s Christians now living in Africa, Asia and Latin America some claim that ‘the era of Western Christianity has passed and the day of Southern Christianity is dawning.’ Such dramatic changes in world Christianity imply that any evaluation of the nature and significance of Christian faith in the contemporary world needs to engage with theologies emerging from the Global South. This module enables students to engage critically with significant Christian voices from the Global South, and to examine how Majority World perspectives challenge and enrich discussion of central Christian themes.

        Assessment

        • Written assessment: 50%
        • Written assessment: 50%