Statistical Analyses
Statistical Resources for Trouble at Work
Through these webpages you can explore the statistical analyses that underpin Touble at Work. This introduction to the statistical resources explains which sections of the book are particularly reliant on these analyses. It also explains which files you should view or download if you want to review the statistical support for a particular section.
When you do this, you should bear in mind that any choice of statistical methods is open to debate. Other methods and other models might produce different results to the ones discussed in Trouble at Work. Any reader who wishes to apply new methods to our data or to construct new models will be able to do so by accessing the whole original data set via the ESDS archive. In order to encourage free use of our data in this way we have placed no restrictions on access. The ESDS archive also hosts exhaustive information about the sampling and interview methods used to collect the data. In addition, it hosts transcripts of all of the interviews which we draw upon in the qualitative case studies discussed in Part Three of Trouble at Work. These are also freely available for other users to read and analyse.
Which bits of Trouble at Work use which statistics?
All Figures
The source data for all of the figures (1-16) reproduced the book are contained in the file ‘Figures contained in Trouble at Work’
Introduction to Part Two
The analysis reported on pp. 30-1 of the sources of ill-treatment (managers, clients and so on) is contained in the file ‘Analyses Regarding the Troubled Minority’.
Chapter Two Fairness and Rationality at Work
The analysis reported on p. 41 of the sources of ill-treatment (managers, clients and so on) is contained in the file ‘Analyses Regarding the Troubled Minority’.
The full details of all the dependent and independent variables used in multivariate analysis (pp. 43-55) are contained in the file ‘Regression Models – Description of All Dependent and Independent Variables’. Multivariate analysis of the full sample for pp. 43-55 can be found in the file ‘Regression Models Unfair Treatment Dependent Variables’. The full record of SPSS procedures undertaken for this analysis is contained in the file ‘Regression Models Unreasonable Treatment Dependent Variables SPSS Output’. A summary of Exp(B) results from the multivariate analysis of all forms of ill-treatment, including unfair treatment, is contained in the file ‘Regression Models Overview Comparisons Across 21 Models’.
Multivariate analysis of the troubled minority of the sample for pp. 55-57 can be found in the file ‘Analyses Regarding the Troubled Minority’.
Bivariate analysis for experiencing, witnessing and perpetrating unfair treatment for pp. 58-60 can be found in the files ‘Summary Table Bivariate Experiencing’, ‘Summary Table Bivariate Witnessing’ and ‘Summary Table Bivariate Perpetrating’.
Detailed industry-level analysis of unfair treatment for p. 60 is contained in ‘Analysis of Experiencing, Witnessing and Perpetrating Negative Behaviour by Industry’.
Chapter Three Civility and Respect at Work
The analysis reported on pp. 63-4 of the sources of ill-treatment (managers, clients and so on) is contained in the file ‘Analyses Regarding the Troubled Minority’.
The full details of all the dependent and independent variables used in multivariate analysis (pp. 66-76) are contained in the file ‘Regression Models – Description of All Dependent and Independent Variables’. Multivariate analysis of the full sample for pp. 66-76 can be found in the file ‘Regression Models Incivility and Disrespect Dependent Variables’. The full record of SPSS procedures undertaken for this analysis is contained in the file ‘Regression Models Incivility and Disrespect Dependent Variables SPSS Output’. A summary of Exp(B) results from the multivariate analysis of all forms of ill-treatment, including unfair treatment, is contained in the file ‘Regression Models Overview Comparisons Across 21 Models’.
Multivariate analysis of the troubled minority of the sample for pp. 76-7 can be found in the file ‘Analyses Regarding the Troubled Minority’
Bivariate analysis for experiencing, witnessing and perpetrating unfair treatment for pp. 78-9 can be found in the files ‘Summary Table Bivariate Experiencing’, ‘Summary Table Bivariate Witnessing’ and ‘Summary Table Bivariate Perpetrating’.
Detailed industry-level analysis of unfair treatment for p. 79 is contained in ‘Analysis of Experiencing, Witnessing and Perpetrating Negative Behaviour by Industry’.
Chapter Four Violence and Injury at Work
The analysis reported on pp. 86-6 of the sources of ill-treatment (managers, clients and so on) is contained in the file ‘Analyses Regarding the Troubled Minority’.
As noted on pp. 92-3 of Trouble at Work, the initial multivariate analysis reported in this chapter is the version with a single dependent variable presented in Jones et al (2011), however the corresponding multivariate analysis to the previous two chapters (with two dependent variables: violence and injury) can be found in the file ‘Regression Models Violence and Injury Dependent Variables’. The full record of SPSS procedures undertaken for this analysis is contained in the file ‘Regression Models Violence and Injury Dependent Variables SPSS Output’. A summary of Exp(B) results from the multivariate analysis of all forms of ill-treatment, including unfair treatment, is contained in the file ‘Regression Models Overview Comparisons Across 21 Models’.
Multivariate analysis of the troubled minority of the sample for pp. 96-7 can be found in the file ‘Analyses Regarding the Troubled Minority’.
Bivariate analysis for experiencing, witnessing and perpetrating unfair treatment for pp. 98-102 can be found in the files ‘Summary Table Bivariate Experiencing’, ‘Summary Table Bivariate Witnessing’ and ‘Summary Table Bivariate Perpetrating’. Detailed industry-level analysis of violence and injury is contained in ‘Analysis of Experiencing, Witnessing and Perpetrating Negative Behaviour by Industry’.
This is the comparison between the results of the NAQ used in the pilot survey for the British Workplace Behaviour Survey and some earlier research which is referenced in our article in the International Journal of Social Research Methodology. The first results in each row are from Hoel and Cooper (2000).
Exposure to individual negative behaviours in ranked order – questionnaire item number | Never | Now & then | Monthly | Weekly | Daily |
1 Someone withholding information which affects your performance | 32.7 80 | 46.9 14 | 7.1 2 | 9.1 1 | 4.2 1 |
3 Being humiliated or ridiculed in connection with your work | 68.6 91 | 25.4 6 | 2.4 1 | 2.4 1 | 1.2 * |
4 Being ordered to do work below your level of competence | 54.2 74 | 31.3 17 | 3.8 2
| 4.7 2 | 6.0 4 |
5 Having key areas of responsibility removed or replaced with more trivial or unpleasant tasks | 61.7 84 | 28.6 11 | 3.4 2 | 3.1 1 | 3.0 1 |
6 Spreading of gossip and rumours about you | 66.1 85 | 26.5 9 | 3.3 1 | 2.2 1 | 1.9 2 |
7 Being ignored, excluded or being ‘sent to Coventry’ | 80.9 91 | 14.2 5 | 1.8 1 | 1.7 1 | 1.4 1 |
8 Having insulting or offensive remarks made about your person (i.e. habits and background), your attitudes or your private life | 75.4 87 | 17.9 8 | 2.2 1 | 2.1 2 | 2.4 2 |
9 Being shouted at or being the target of spontaneous anger (or rage) | 70.3 81 | 22.2 13 | 2.9 1 | 2.8 2 | 1.9 2 |
10 Intimidating behaviour such as finger-pointing, invasion of personal space, showing, blocking/barring the way | 82.5 87 | 12.3 9 | 1.6 1 | 2.2 1 | 1.5 2 |
11Hints or signals from others that you should quit your job | 88.9 89 | 8.7 8 | 0.9 1 | 1.0 1 | 0.5 1 |
12 Threats of violence or physical abuse | 89.6 91 | 6.7 6 | 1.4 * | 1.5 1 | 0.9 1 |
13 Repeated reminders of your errors and mistakes | 72.0 80 | 23.5 15 | 2.3 1 | 1.3 2 | 1.0 2 |
14 Being ignored or facing hostility when you approach | 74.1 82 | 19.7 11 | 2.7 2 | 2.2 2 | 1.4 2 |
15 Persistent criticism of work and effort | 78.7 84 | 16.2 11 | 2.4 1 | 1.9 1 | 0.7 1 |
16 Having your opinions and views ignored | 42.8 64 | 42.9 27 | 6.4 3 | 4.9 3 | 2.9 2 |
18 Practical jokes carried out by people you don’t get on with | 92.0 88 | 6.7 8 | 0.6 * | 0.4 1 | 0.2 1 |
20Being given tasks with unreasonable or impossible targets or deadlines | 48.1 68 | 35.0 21 | 7.2 4 | 5.8 4 | 3.9 3 |
21Having allegations made against you | 82.5 90 | 14.7 7 | 1.6 2 | 0.7 * | 0.5 * |
22Excessive monitoring of your work | 72.7 72 | 18.0 16 | 4.2 3 | 2.4 3 | 2.8 4 |
24 Pressure not to claim something which by right you are entitled to (e.g. sick leave, holiday entitlement, travel expenses) by rights | 71.0 84 | 22.3 12 | 3.1 1 | 1.8 1 | 1.7 1 |
25 Being the subject of excessive teasing and sarcasm | 83.9 88 | 12.2 7 | 1.4 1 | 1.4 1 | 1.1 2 |
28 Being exposed to an unmanageable workload | 46.2 63 | 32.8 22 | 6.5 3 | 6.7 4 | 7.9 7 |
Sources: Pilot for British Workplace Behaviour Survey, 2007; Hoel, H. and Cooper, C.L. (2000) Final Report: Destructive Conflict And Bullying At Work, British Occupational Health Research Foundation/ University of Manchester