Microneedles provide a minimally-invasive way of delivering medicines to and through the skin, thus overcoming some of the disadvantages of conventional needles and syringes, i.e. pain, apprehension, inappropriate use, accidental injury, cross-infection and safe disposal. The Cardiff team are developing microneedles for a range of applications including the delivery of vaccines, nucleic acids, botulinum toxin and peptides (Phase I clinical trial starting 2015) . Commercial interest in microneedle development expertise has resulted in collaborative research agreements with SMEs in Europe, multi-national engineering firms and global pharmaceutical companies leading to IP commercialisation and licensing opportunities. Microneedle research is also stimulating policy debate with Cardiff researchers participating in strategic meetings with global policy makers including the WHO, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Medecins Sans Frontiers and UNICEF.