Critical Appraisal Checklists
Over the years SURE team members have worked with a large number of different critical appraisal tools and checklists in our systematic review work and in our teaching. There are pluses and minuses with all of them.
Many papers have been published over the last ten to fifteen years that indicate the multiplicity of ways in which error and bias can distort the results of papers. We have attempted to capture this work in the SURE checklists, using detailed sub-questions to tease out issues. Over the next few months, we will be adding explanatory notes related to each question. Any feedback and suggestions for improvement will be welcomed (SURE@cardiff.ac.uk).
In addition to the SURE checklists, other checklists that the team has found useful for different types of research study are included. Some forms (including the SURE forms) are designed to help assess any potential sources of bias in the research study that can be presented in a narrative summary. Some checklists will lead to a summary quality score and these are marked [SCORE].
Published Critical Appraisal Checklists
1. Systematic (literature) reviews of primary research studies
- SURE checklist: Systematic Review
- Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Systematic Review
- AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews [SCORE]
2. Intervention (experimental) studies
- SURE checklist: RCT and other experimental studies
- Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs)
- The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias [SCORE]
3. Observational studies
- Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Cohort Studies
- Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Case Control Studies
- Newcastle Ottawa Scale for non-randomised studies [SCORE]
4. Qualitative (views and opinions) studies
5. Diagnostic accuracy studies
- Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Diagnostic Test Studies QUADAS-2 [SCORE]
6. Economic evaluation studies
- Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Economic Evaluation Studies
- NICE Guidelines, The Manual Appendix H. pp7-20 Checklist: economic evaluations [SCORE]
7. Overall assessment of a body of research with different study designs
8. Not sure of study type?
- NICE Guidelines, The Manual Appendix H. pp3 Algorithm for classifying quantitative (experimental and observational) study designs
- pp.24-25 in Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Questions for Busy Clinicians. The Centre for Clinical Effectiveness, Monash Institute of Health Services Research: Melbourne, Australia, 2006
- L. Hartling et al. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64 (2011) 861e871 - Figure 1
9. Reporting standards for use when writing up a primary research study