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EndNote desktop FAQs

These FAQs for EndNote desktop form the main part of our FAQs for EndNote in general, including detailed advice on using EndNote with Microsoft Word, adapting output styles, formatting citations and references, and troubleshooting.  If you are using EndNote Web, rather than EndNote desktop, and do not find the answer to your question here, please look at the separate shorter list of FAQs specifically for EndNote Web.

EndNote Web and EndNote desktop

Accessing EndNote Desktop

Exporting References

EndNote and Microsoft Word

Changing citation format, e.g. to include page numbers

Troubleshooting preferences and settings in EndNote

Using EndNote on a home computer or a non-networked University computer

Converting to / from older versions of EndNote

Merging two libraries

Further help

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EndNote Web and EndNote desktop

What are the differences between EndNote Web and EndNote desktop?

Both EndNote Web and EndNote desktop allow you to import references from databases to store in your library and link to Word to automate your citing and referencing. One difference is that EndNote desktop has unlimited storage capacity whereas EndNote Web storage is limited to 10,000 references (or 25,000 references if you use it alongside EndNote desktop).

Benefits of EndNote Web include being able to share libraries with colleagues, capture references from the Web and being able to access EndNote remotely without purchasing the desktop version. 

Benefits of EndNote desktop include being able to edit output styles, work offline and customise displays and work in a more sophisticated desktop environment. 

It is possible to store PDFs in your EndNote desktop library. You can store PDFs in EndNote Web if you use it alongside EndNote desktop (ie if you Sync it to EndNote desktop) but not if you use EndNote Web on its own. You may find this summary of the differences useful.

How do I synchronise my references between EndNote Web and EndNote desktop?

Synchronising references is possible when you are using versions of EndNote from X6 onwards. Go into EndNote desktop and click on the blue Sync button (or go to Tools – Sync). Enter your EndNote Web login details and click OK. The first time you Sync you will be taken through the process of creating a compressed library back-up. Once this is done, it will take a short while to synchronise your libraries. 

What should I do if the Synchronise option does not work?

If syncing is not working in EndNote desktop click on Edit – Preferences - Sync and make sure your EndNote Web login details are entered in the boxes and are correct. If the Sync button is greyed out it means you don’t currently have an EndNote desktop library open.


Accessing EndNote desktop

How do I access EndNote desktop?

Access EndNote desktop on a Windows machine via All Programs/CardiffApps/Statistics and Databases. If you are using a University-owned Mac you can contact your Local Computing Representative who will install the EndNote software for you.


Exporting References

How do I export references from a database?

Most databases will allow you to export references into EndNote easily. Although the interface will vary, the following instructions should help with most databases:

  • Search the database and then in the results list select the references in which you are interested.
  • There will normally be a button at the top of your results list called something like ‘Export’ or ‘Download’, click this button.
  • You will then have to select the export format from a drop-down list so make sure you select the format which lists ‘EndNote’ as one of the options.

Then finalise the request by clicking an Export button (you may need to click ‘Open’ in the browser to ensure the references export to EndNote).

What if a password is needed to connect?

It is advisable to access all of our subscription databases by first logging in to the intranet with your network username and password. Select the subject you're studying on the 'Information resources for your subject' page to view all of the databases and other e-resources associated with that subject. 

You should be able to access your required database successfully, as you will be recognised as a Cardiff University member and eligible to use our subscription resources under the licensing terms of the database supplier. In a small number of cases however, different login details may be required, which are separate from your network username and password. If you see a padlock symbol next to the name of a database in our A-Z list, you will need to click on this and supply your network login to gain authorisation to view the extra password required. View a full list of these specific passwords.

How do I import references from Google Scholar?

You will need to configure Google Scholar to send references to EndNote. Then you will be able to send references to EndNote by clicking on the Import into EndNote link. Follow these steps to configure Google Scholar to send references to EndNote:

  • Go to the Google Scholar home page.
  • Click on the Settings link in the top right hand corner of the page.
  • Under Bibliography Manager select the option Show links to import citations into and choose EndNote in the drop down box.
  • Click on the Save button.

Follow these steps to import search results into EndNote:

  • After performing a search on Google Scholar click on the Import into EndNote link for the reference you want to import.
  • If you are presented with a window asking if you want to Open or Save the file, choose to open the file, otherwise proceed to the next step.
  • A Select a Reference Library window will appear - use this window to select the EndNote library into which you want to import the reference.

What do I do if a filter is not on the network?

If a filter for a particular database is not on the University's networked version of EndNote, you may find a suitable one listed on the EndNote web site. From the website's homepage, click on the Downloads link and choose Filters. If you find an appropriate filter here, you can save it to your own filespace by following these instructions:

  • Make a folder on your H drive on the university network and call it EndNote Filters.
  • Save the filter file from the EndNote website to your EndNote Filters folder.
  • In EndNote go to Edit > Preferences and select Folder Locations in the left-hand panel of the window which appears.
  • Under Filter Folder, click on the Select Folder button.
  • Make sure your EndNote Filters folder on your H drive is selected. (If it isn't, click Select Folder next to the 'Style Folder' box and then use the drop-down arrow under Drives: at the bottom right of the window to find it. Find the correct folder on your H drive and click on Select.) Then click OK.
  • The program should now be set to look on your local drive to find the filter you have saved, and you can now try using it to import references from the database into your EndNote library.

Alternatively, you can ask for the filter to be tested and added to the University network. Please contact your home library or email

How do I export references from LibrarySearch?

LibrarySearch results can currently be directly transferred to EndNote Web but not EndNote.

  • Click on the Find & Request, Details, or Reviews & Tags tab beneath the record. 
  • Then click on Send to in the top right-hand corner of the window which opens. 
  • Choose EndNote Web from the drop down menu. EndNote Web will automatically open in a new window.
  • Log in to your EndNote Web account and you will see a message confirming the record has been transferred. 
  • Click on My References in EndNote Web to see the record in your unfiled folder. 

To export multiple results to EndNote Web: 

  • Sign in to LibrarySearch. 
  • Then add the items you require to your e-Shelf by clicking on the star icon next to them. 
  • When you have finished, select the e-Shelf link at the top right of the screen. 
  • Select the records you want to transfer. 
  • Ensure Push to EndNote Web is selected in the 'Push to' drop down menu and select Go.

If you would like to include your EndNote Web references in your EndNote desktop library, you will need to Sync your EndNote desktop and EndNote Web libraries.

What if I'm having other filter problems?

A few databases, for example ZETOC, require you to save references as a text file and then import the references from the text file into EndNote using an import filter. Firstly, check you are using the correct filter for the database from which you have saved the text file. If you are unsure of what import filter to use when exporting references from a database please consult the relevant database guide or contact your home library).

Also check that any records that you are trying to import are in text (.txt) file format.

If only part of the reference is importing, or if sections of the reference are appearing in the wrong fields in your library, it may be a fault with the filter. If this is the case then please contact your home library or email


EndNote and Microsoft Word

What if EndNote & Word aren't connecting?

Check that you are using the latest networked versions of EndNote and Word. At the beginning of your session be sure to open the EndNote program via All Programs/Cardiff Apps/Statistics and Databases. Then, from within the EndNote program, select the EndNote library you wish to use. Next open Microsoft Word from via All Programs/Microsoft Office/Microsoft Office Word. This should ensure that the connection between the two programs is successful.

If you encounter further difficulties please contact your home library or email

How do I create separate chapter bibliographies within a single Word document?

If you want to produce a Word document containing separate chapters, each with its own bibliography, you can configure an EndNote output style to do this for you. EndNote can be instructed either to create only a bibliography at the end of each chapter, or to create a bibliography for each chapter plus a full, cumulative bibliography at the end of the whole document.

To prepare your Word document correctly, you need to insert a Section Break between each subsequent chapter after the end of the first chapter:

  • Click just before the start of your second chapter.
  • Go to the Page Layout tab in Word.
  • In the Page Layout palette, click on the Breaks button and choose one of the available Section Breaks, e.g. Continuous.
  • Repeat these steps to insert another Section Break just before the start of each of the following chapters.

Since most EndNote styles are not by default configured to generate multiple bibliographies within a single Word document, you will probably need to edit the EndNote style you want to use, by copying it to your own filespace so you can make personalised alterations:

  • Open Windows Explorer (Right-click on the Start button in the lefthand corner of the screen, and choose Open Windows Explorer). Navigate to F:\Appwin7\STATISTICS_DATABASES\ENDNOTE\X7\Styles and find the style you want to use, and right-click on it and choose Copy. Now navigate to your H:\drive.
  • Then you need to create a folder called EndNote Styles. Click on File – New – Folder and call the new folder EndNote Styles. Double click on the Styles folder and then right-click in the folder space and choose Paste.
  • Now please rename your copy of the style to something distinguishable from the original, e.g. [Style_Name]customised.ens. This is very important to avoid confusion between files later in this process.

You now need to change the Folder Location preferences in EndNote to look on your H:\ drive to find the new Styles folder you have just created:

  • In EndNote click on Edit – Preferences – Folder locations then click on the Select folder button for the Styles folder.
  • Then click on the drop down menu at the top of the window and locate your H:\ drive. Click on your EndNote Styles folder.
  • Click on Select – Apply – OK.

Next you need to open the EndNote Style Manager to edit your copy of the output style: in EndNote click on Edit – Output styles – Open Style Manager. You should now find that your personal copy of the style with the filename [Style_Name]customised.ens is listed alongside all the campus-wide styles from the F:\ drive. (This is why it was important to rename your style so you can distinguish it from the standard version of the style.)

Finally, you can now modify the style to create a bibliography after each section:

  • On the EndNote toolbar go to Edit – Output Styles – Open Style Manager
  • Highlight your copied style in the list and click Edit.
  • On the new window which appears, choose Sections in the lefthand panel (5th item in the list).
  • Now you have 2 options to determine how EndNote handles bibliographies in a document where you have inserted section breaks. You can either:
    • Create a bibliography for each section, or
    • Create a bibliography for each section and a complete bibliography at the end of the document.
  • Choose your preferred option then close the style editor window by clicking on the lower cross at the top right of the screen. You will be prompted to save your changes: click Yes.
  • In future, when you select this referencing style for a document in which you have created section breaks, the bibliographies for each section should be displayed according to the settings you have made in the output style.

How do I create a single bibliography from multiple Word documents?

By using the Master Document feature in Word it is possible to generate a single bibliography from multiple Word documents. This enables you to create a single cumulative bibliography even if you have many references listed in a number of different Word files.

The process is relatively complex and you are recommended to use the easier process of creating multiple chapter bibliographies within a single Word file  if at all possible. However, if you do have to split your complete document into several different Word files, the following steps should guide you through the process.

Firstly, put your references into the documents as you go along in the normal way. Note that even though you are working with several Word documents, you *must* insert the EndNote references from a single EndNote Library. Do not insert references from more than one Library.

To create a single bibliography from a group of Word documents which contain EndNote references from a single library:

  • Open your first Word document and click on the EndNote tab on the toolbar in Word. Then, on the Bibliography palette, use the Convert Citations and Bibliography drop-down menu to choose the option to Convert to Unformatted Citations. Save and close the document.
  • Do this for each separate Word document.
  • Create a New Word document.
  • Click on the View tab in the Word toolbar. Then click the Outline button in the Document Views palette. This will designate the new document as a Master Document and will change the display of the document. It will also activate a new Outlining tab on the toolbar.
  • Click on Show Document in the Master Document palette. This will reveal further options on the Master Document palette. Clicking on the new Insert button in this palette will open up an Insert Subdocument dialog box where you can browse to find the file containing your first chapter. Highlight the required file and click Open to insert it into the Master Document.
  • NOTE: if you have collapsed subdocuments to hide their content in Outline view, make sure you expand them in order to display the contents of all subdocuments before continuing.
  • In Word, click on the arrow symbol at the bottom right of the Bibliography palette within the EndNote tab on the Word toolbar. This will open the EndNote Format Bibliography dialogue box.
  • Use the Style: drop-down menu to select the style you require and click on OK.

EndNote will now create a complete bibliography of all of the references contained in each of your chapters. The bibliography will be automatically placed at the end of the last subdocument containing EndNote citations which you inserted into the Master Document.

If references are changed in any of the subdocuments, the master bibliography can automatically be updated with the new changes: you will need to rerun the Format Bibliography command in the Master Document to update the complete bibliography, if changes have been made.

How do I create an independent Word bibliography without inserting citations?

  • Open the library of references in EndNote.
  • Make sure you have selected the style you want the references to appear in, e.g. Cardiff University Harvard.
  • Select the desired references from your list in the EndNote library. You can either select them all by going to Edit > Select All on the EndNote toolbar, or you can select just some of them by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking on only the ones you want from the list.
  • In EndNote go to Edit > Copy Formatted on the toolbar.
  • Switch to Microsoft Word and use the Paste button in the Clipboard palette on the Home tab to create a bibliography of all the references you have created.

How do I create footnotes instead of endnotes?

This can be done using Microsoft Word's footnote facility.

  • In Word 2010, position the cursor at the point where you wish to insert a reference in your text. On the References tab click Insert Footnote in the Footnotes palette.
  • Click in the footnote field which appears at the bottom of the page.
  • On the Word toolbar click on the EndNote tab and click on Go to EndNote in the Citations palette. This should take you directly to your EndNote library if it is already open, or otherwise prompt you to open the EndNote library you wish to use.
  • In EndNote highlight the reference you wish to insert then, on the EndNote toolbar, go to: Tools > Cite While You Write > Insert Selected Citation(s).

The full citation will appear in the footnote area, and also in the bibliography at the end of your document.

To make the footnote numbering begin at '1' for the start of a new chapter within the same document:

  • At the beginning of each chapter, insert a Section break (to do this, click at the start of a chapter then activate the Page Layout tab in Word. Use the Breaks menu on the Page Setup palette to choose a Continuous Section Break, then click OK). Each chapter will now be treated as a separate section of the document.
  • Finally, configure Word to start at '1' for the first footnote in each chapter: activate the References tab in Word and click on the small arrow symbol at the bottom right hand corner of the Footnotes palette, to show the Footnote and Endnote dialogue box. Next to Numbering, change the setting from Continuous to Restart each section in the drop-down menu, then click Apply.

Word will now begin numbering the footnotes at '1' in the new chapter.

How do I delete a citation?

You should not do this by simply deleting the text of the reference within Word because EndNote's invisible formatting codes will remain in the background. (This means that the reference you have deleted may reappear next time you open the Word document.) To remove a reference correctly from a Microsoft Word 2010 document, you must click on the reference in Word then click on the Edit & Manage Citation(s) button on the EndNote tab. Ensure the correct reference is highlighted in the window which appears, click Edit Reference and then choose Remove Citation. Then click OK.

What do I do if Word shows lots of long codes where my citations and references should be?

EndNote works with Microsoft Word by placing what are called 'field codes' in the background of your Word document wherever a citation or reference has been inserted. These codes do not normally show in Word, unless field codes are for some reason set to be displayed. You can 'turn off' field codes in a document by pressing the ALT key and the F9 function key simultaneously. This should restore the normal view of your EndNote citations in the Word document and cause the field codes to disappear.

What if the grey shading doesn’t show when I click on my citations / references in Word?

Some users have reported losing the grey shading which appears in Word when you click on citations or references added via EndNote. If you encounter this issue, amend the settings in Word by going to File – Options – Advanced and scrolling down to ‘Show document content’. There is an option for field shading, choose either ‘Always’ or ‘When selected’ if you wish the grey shading to appear in Word when you click on citations and references added via EndNote.

How do import a Word bibliography into EndNote?

There is not an easy solution to this problem, but there are some possible approaches which could save time. The best option to try will depend on how many references you are dealing with. Three different methods are available:

  1. Copy and paste references from documents into EndNote— useful for a small number of references
  2. Create a Tagged "EndNote Import" file— useful for longer bibliographies.
  3. Create a custom "tagged" format & import filter— useful for importing several different bibliographies.


  1. Copying and pasting references from a document into EndNote

To transfer the references into EndNote:

  • Open the list of references in Word.
  • Select a reference and copy it using the Copy button in the Clipboard palette on the Home tab of the Word toolbar.
  • Open your EndNote library, and choose New Reference (CTRL+N) from the References menu to create a new reference.
  • Put the cursor in the Title field of the new reference and choose Paste from the Edit menu. This will paste the entire reference into the Title field of the Reference window. From here, you can 'drag and drop' (or cut and paste) the individual pieces of data into their proper fields. Be sure to remove extra punctuation and spaces at the end of each field, and make sure author names are each on a separate line.
  1. Create a tagged "EndNote Import" file

To import a list of references from Word into EndNote:

  • Save a copy of your file and remove everything but the reference data from the file.
  • Then convert the reference data into a tagged format.

Each field of data (i.e. Journal, Volume, or Title) is preceded by an identifying tag: a percent sign (%) followed by a single capital letter, number or sign. Entire references are separated by one blank line:

%0 Book
%A Geoffrey Chaucer
%D 1957
%T The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer
%E F. N. Robinson
%I Houghton
%C Boston
%N 2nd

%0 Journal Article
%A Herbert H. Clark
%D 1982
%T Hearers and Speech Acts
%B Language
%V 58
%P 332-373

%0 Thesis
%A Elena Cantucci
%T Permian strata in South-East Asia
%D 1990
%I University of California, Berkeley
%9 Dissertation

There is a full list of EndNote tags and reference types.

  • Author names use the %A tag. Author names can appear either as Geoffrey Chaucer or Chaucer, Geoffrey. Either initials or full names are accepted.
  • %A tag should repeat for each author, with the names listed one per line: 
  • %A Jones, Mary

    %A Simon, Jeff

  • Once all the references are tagged save the document as a plain text file (.txt) and close the document.
  • Open your EndNote library, Choose File > Import. Use the Browse button to choose the text file you have saved. Then select the correct Import option, which is EndNote Import. Now click OK and your references should be imported into the library.
  1. Creating a custom "tagged" format

If you have a large bibliography that you would like to import into EndNote, it may be possible to use the Find and Replace commands within Word to insert descriptive tags in front of some of the fields of data so that EndNote can accurately import the references. In addition to adding tags, you also need to make a filter to read your tags.

  • Save a copy of your file and remove everything but the reference data from the file.
  • Add descriptive field tags at the start of each reference and the filter does the rest of the work. This works well for reference lists that have clear delimiters separating the individual components of the reference (author, year, title, etc.).

Suppose your references look like this:

 Jones, M. C. and Harrison, G. (1990) "Planet X" Icarus. Vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 11-23. 
Billoski, T.V. (1990) "Greenhouse hypothesis" Extinction. Vol 2 no. 1, pp. 12-18.

The process of converting this bibliographic format to a tagged format would be something like this:

Search for 2 paragraph marks (since the references are separated by 1 blank line), and replace with two paragraph marks and a tag "%A" followed by a space.

The result is a tagged data file that looks like this, giving each reference on a separate line with a %A identifier before it:

%A Jones, M. C. and Harrison, G. (1990) "Planet X" Icarus. Vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 11-23.

%A Billoski, T.V. (1990) "Greenhouse hypothesis" Extinction. Vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 12-18.

As it stands these references would be imported by EndNote into the author field, in their entirety, owing to the %A tag denoting the Author field. So next you need to work out how to tag the separate parts of the reference. It may not be possible to do all of them. However, taking 'Journal Title' as an example, it can be seen that each item title is preceded by a closing quotation mark and a space. So you could use Word's Find & Replace commands to replace every instance of a quotation mark and a space with a paragraph mark and the tag %B and a space. This will get each Journal Title onto a new line with an identifier preceding it:

%A Jones, M. C. and Harrison, G. (1990) "Planet X"
%B Icarus. Vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 11-23.

%A Billoski, T.V. (1990) "Greenhouse hypothesis"
%B Extinction. Vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 12-18.

It will similarly be possible to move the article titles onto a new line with an identifier, by replacing every instance of a space followed by a quotation mark with a paragraph mark and an article title tag %T , giving:

%A Jones, M. C. and Harrison, G. (1990)
%T "Planet X"
%BIcarus. Vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 11-23.

%A Billoski, T.V. (1990)
%T "Greenhouse hypothesis"
%B Extinction. Vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 12-18.

Once you have tagged as much of the data as possible by exploiting consistent features of the data as demonstrated in these two examples, save the file (as a plain text file .txt), and create an import filter to match the tags and formats of the references.


Import the data

After you have created your tagged text file, you can use the EndNote Import filter to import the data. In EndNote go to File - Import and choose your text file. Select EndNote Import as the Filter and click OK.

If you can't get the filter to import everything exactly as you want, you may have to do some manual editing to correct this either before or after importing the data into EndNote. You might find it useful to import into a test library, then use the Change / Move / Copy Fields commands in EndNote's Tools menu, and the Find and Replace commands in the Edit menu, to clean up the data. Then, transfer these references to your real library with 'drag and drop', copy and paste, or the Import command.


Changing citation format, e.g. to include page numbers

How do I change the format of the citations in my text, for example from (Jones 1992) to (Jones)?

Do not simply edit formatted references by clicking on them in your Word document and typing changes, because alterations made in this way will not be preserved next time you open the file. Instead:

  • Right-click on the formatted citation in Word, and choose Edit Citations(s)
  • You can now change the display options, and add Pages, Prefixes or Suffixes. Prefixes and Suffixes are useful if you want a citation to say, for instance: (See Smith 2001), or if you want to say: (Jones 1999 and others).

Note that it is not always possible to add page numbers using the page numbers box – it depends whether the output style you are using has been set up to accept the addition of page references. If you find that page numbers you have entered in the Pages field in the Edit Citations window do not display in your citations, try adding them in the Suffix box instead, by typing, for example, pp. 4-6 in the Suffix box, then clicking OK.

How do I make corporate authors appear correctly in my citations and references?

When you type a corporate name, such as Cadbury Schweppes Ltd, in the author field of an EndNote reference, you must type a comma after the corporate name. This will cause EndNote to treat the whole name as a block of text, and prevent it from inverting the words to conventional 'Last name', 'First name' format.

How can I modify an output style if it doesn't do exactly what I want?

If you want to modify an output style, you may do this by copying the style to your own personal filespace and then editing it.

To create a copy of the style you wish to edit:

  • Create a folder on your personal filespace, e.g. on your university H:\ drive, and call it EndNote Styles
  • In EndNote, go to Edit > Preferences on the toolbar. 
  • Select Folder Locations in the EndNote Preferences window. 
  • Under ‘Style Folder’, click on Select Folder
  • Click on the output style to select the output style you wish to edit. 
  • Copy the style (Ctrl + C) 
  • Navigate to your personal filespace (e.g. your university H:\ drive) using the drop down ‘Look in’ menu and paste the style into your EndNote Styles folder (Ctrl + V).
  • Click on Select, then Apply and then OK.

EndNote will now be pointing to your EndNote Styles folder within your personal filespace. To edit the copied style:

  • Click on Edit > Output Styles.
  • Find the output style in the list then click in the box next to the left of the output style then click on Edit. You will now be able to edit the style.
  • Click on File and Save to save your changes. You will now be able to view the amendments by opening a Word document and seeing the changes when the edited output style is selected. You will also be able to see the results of the modification to the style by selecting it within EndNote and viewing your references in the Preview pane of you library.


Troubleshooting preferences and settings in EndNote

The spellchecker in EndNote is greyed out. How do I activate this option?

The first time you want to perform a spell check in EndNote you may find that this option is greyed out. To activate the spell-check:

  • On the EndNote toolbar, go to Edit > Preferences.
  • Select Spell Check and then click on Options
  • Ensure that the options you want are ticked and then select your Main Dictionary Language from the drop-down menu e.g. British English, British English Medical etc.
  • Double click on a reference in your EndNote Library to open it for editing.  
  • You will now see that the Spell Check option is active. Click on it and a spell check will be run on that reference.

How can I substitute the abbreviated journal names for the full names in a bibliography?

You can use the Journals term lists to store abbreviated journal names that EndNote can substitute for the full journal name in a bibliography.

EndNote's term lists are used to store terms such as keywords, author names, or journal names. You can use these stored terms when entering references to improve consistency and accuracy of information in your library.

For journal names, you can load one of a number of supplied term lists, including:

  • Chemical.txt
  • Humanities.txt
  • Medical.txt

Each list contains a large number of journals in that subject discipline, along with a choice of widely-used abbreviations for each title. You can add your own further abbreviations to the lists once you have saved them to your own filespace as directed below.

To begin using one of the supplied term lists, you should first delete any existing terms which EndNote has already gathered from your library:

  • On the EndNote toolbar, go to Tools > Open Term Lists and then select Journals Term List.
  • Delete all existing terms from the list (these are automatically added as you enter references into your EndNote library). You can click and drag to highlight all terms, and then click Delete Term.
  • Click on the Lists tab and highlight the Journals list.
  • Click Import List.
  • In the next window navigate to C:\program files\EndNote X7\Terms Lists.
  • Select the list(s) you want to use and click Open to import the journal names and abbreviations from the file into the Journals term list.

If you now select an output style which is set up to convert abbreviated journal titles to full journal titles, e.g. Cardiff University OPTOM Harvard Style, when you enter abbreviations these will now be replaced by the full journal title.

You can modify an existing style yourself if required. to make it replicate abbreviations in full, or convert full names to abbreviations. See the FAQ on modifying an output style for more information.

Where have the output styles / filters / connection files gone?

It may be that EndNote is set up to look in the wrong place to find these files. To solve this issue:

  • Open EndNote and go to Edit > Preferences on the EndNote toolbar.
  • Click on Folder Locations in the left of the Edit Preferences window.
  • The Style folder should point to H:\My Documents.  If it doesn't you will need to click on Select Folder. This will open up the 'Where is the styles folder?' window.  To restore the correct setting, you will need to navigate to the filepath given above.
  • Repeat the above for the Filter folder and also for the Connections folder.
  • Close EndNote down and then open it again. The program should now look in the correct locations to find styles, filters and connection files.


Using EndNote on a home computer or a non-networked University computer

Can I use the EndNote software at home?

If you want to use the desktop version of EndNote at home on your own personal computer you will need to purchase a copy of the software. There is a student and staff discount option on the Bilaney Consultants website who are the preferred distributors of Thomson Reuters, the makers of EndNote.

Alternatively you can register for EndNoteWeb. Although possessing less functionality than the networked version, EndNote Web provides the option of accessing EndNote off-campus and free of charge. For details on how to get started, see our EndNote Web FAQs.

Can I have a copy of the EndNote software installed on a non-networked University computer?

If it is a University-owned desktop computer or laptop then you are entitled as a member of the University to have a free copy of the EndNote software installed If you are in a School contact your Local Computing Representative in the first instance. Members of the Professional Services should email

How can I register for EndNote Web?

Sign up on campus
Go to EndNote Web and at the ‘Authentication Preference Selection’ page select IP Authentication, then click on Continue. Next click on Sign Up.

Please note: After 12 months of off-campus only use, an EndNote Web account will be de-activated. The account will remain de-activated until it is re-activated on-campus (however, any libraries, references, personal settings, etc. will be saved). If an EndNote Web account is not re-activated on-campus six months after being de-activated all personal data will be lost.

Sign up off campus
GO to EndNote Web and at the ‘Authentication Preference Selection’ page select Institutional (Shibboleth) Authentication, then click on Continue. Next click on Sign Up.

Please note: that you will need to login to EndNote Web once every 12 months to keep your registration alive. This can be done either by logging in to your EndNote account from an on campus machine, or by logging into EndNote off campus via the institutional login (Shibboleth) link found on the EndNote Web log-in page.

How can I use the Cardiff University Harvard style if I have bought EndNote to use on my home computer?

Click on the file below to access the Cardiff University Harvard style. Please note that the file will open in EndNote, so you will need to have EndNote already installed on your home PC.

  • The file will open as a Cardiff University Harvard.ens file.  Save the file to the C:\EndNote\Styles folder on your home computer.
  • Then go to Edit – Preferences and select Folder Locations.
  • In the Style folder, click on the Select Folder... button.
  • Select the drive where you saved the file, using the drop-down arrow under Drives: at the bottom right of the window. Find the .ens file you saved and click on Select Folder. Then click OK.
  • EndNote should now be set to look on your C:\ drive to find the Cardiff University Harvard style and you will now be able to display all your references in this style.


Converting to / from older versions of EndNote

How can I convert libraries created with older versions to open them in the latest version of EndNote?

EndNote version 8 and and all newer versions are mutually compatible, meaning that EndNote libraries that were created using EndNote 8 or above can all be opened by all newer versions of the software. If you have an older library that was created using EndNote version 7 or earlier, you can convert the library to the newer format as follows:

  • In EndNote desktop go to File > Open > Open Library
  • Select the old EndNote library file you wish to convert.
  • EndNote desktop will create a new copy of your original library and leave the original library unchanged. 
  • You can now work with the new copy in EndNote desktop but be aware that modifications you make in this new version of the library will not be replicated in the original library that was created in the earlier version of EndNote.

How do I open libraries created with EndNote 8 onwards in older versions of EndNote?

Libraries created in Endnote 8 onwards are not backwards-compatible with previous versions. To use EndNote 8 onwards libraries with an older version of EndNote you will need to import the library from EndNote 8 onwards into the older version of the program:

  • Open the library in EndNote 8 onwards and make sure all references are showing.
  • Select Refer Export as the output style.
  • Go to File > Export, enter a file name, and save the file to a convenient location such as the Desktop.
  • Next, in the older version of EndNote, create a new library or open an existing one.
  • Go to File > Import.
  • Click the Choose File button and select the text file you just created.
  • Under Import Option select Refer/BibX.
  • Click the Import button.


Merging two libraries

How do I merge two libraries together?

Open one of your libraries and go to File > Import on the toolbar. Use the Browse button to find the second library you wish to import into the open library. Choose the EndNote Library Import Option and pick the appropriate Duplicates setting, depending on how you wish EndNote to deal with duplicate references which appear in both the libraries. Click on Import and the references from the second library will appear in the library which is currently open.

Be aware that whenever you add references to a library they are each assigned a unique record number, in the order in which they were added to the library. This means that references imported into a new library will be assigned a new record number after importing. Consequently, you will not be able to use the new merged library to format papers that have already have citations with the older record numbers from the previous non-merged libraries.


Further help

How can I get further help with EndNote?

You can access the EndNote company's own Knowledge Base and Frequently Asked Questions.

You can also contact your home library or email if you need further advice.