Orthodontics and Three-Dimensional Imaging Group

Research in these groups improves our knowledge and understanding of the development of the craniofacial complex and translates this knowledge into routine clinical practice and daily activities. Notable achievements are highlighted below.

Orthodontics

There have been significant incremental improvements in the provision of orthodontic care in Wales and further work is required to determine the orthodontic activity in all services and how these services can be improved in terms of appropriate case mixes, commissioning and management of an integrated service.

Improving the efficiency of the orthodontic services in Wales is an iterative process achieving progressive marginal gains. Improving efficiency depends on good data with minimal contract/provider/performer variation and knowledge of the contracts and initiatives that have been agreed (past, present and future).

Occlusal Index courses are run every December in Cardiff. The use of occlusal indices ensures uniform interpretation and application of criteria. There is a necessity to improve diagnostic criteria and develop a common approach to assessing treatment need and outcome (based on available evidence). Patients who enter into treatment should be treated with the most effective appliances by those practitioners most competent to perform treatment to a high standard. In addition to the ethical need for effective orthodontic treatment, consideration should be given to delivering orthodontic care at a reasonable cost over an optimal period of time. Occlusal indices provide the opportunity to continuously improve orthodontic care.

Evidence-Based Orthodontics is the first textbook to be devoted to the methodology, principles and practice of evidence–based orthodontics. It aims to serve as a reference for those wishing to understand the principles of evidence–based practice including the foundation for clinical study design, epidemiology and the statistical inferences from data. The ability to define a search strategy from established databases and to identify relevant clinical and translational research in the scientific published literature requires a new approach in orthodontic education. This book provides the opportunity for clinicians to keep updated and critically appraise new orthodontic evidence.

Three-Dimensional Imaging Group (3DIG)

Subtle facial differences make an individual unique and it is this uniqueness that needs to be recognized, defined, categorised and incorporated into a computerized patient specific model. The craniofacial structures are complex and there are many clinical and non-clinical specialties that have a specific interest in the dental and oro-facial region. Although there have been significant investments in research to explain development and facial variation, the mechanisms of how normal and abnormal growth/facial development occurs, still remains unclear and subject to many theories. Improving knowledge in how the facial tissues arise and function will enhance the validity of computerized models. The 3DIG activities are highlighted in this free ibooks booklet.

The teaching and research outputs for individual staff members can be found by following the individual staff profiles.

Aims

  • to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the provision of orthodontic care
  • to understand the development of the craniofacial complex and use this knowledge to influence routine clinical practice and daily activities.

Research Impacts

  • Occlusal indices PAR Index (1992) recognized as an important event (Reported in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics “100 years of Orthodontic History” May 2015). Influenced orthodontic provision in over 52 countries and mandatory use in many. Led to improvements in orthodontic provision in terms of overall costs, efficiencies, effectiveness and treatment outcomes.
  • Identified and replicated the role of the PAX3 gene in normal facial variation.
  • Identified pleiotropic effects of HMGA2, AJUBA and ADK genes on tooth & facial development.
  • Determined association of lip traits to known cleft genes.
  • Developed a novel facial patient specific dynamic biomechanical model for facial surgery. A valuable spin-off in tracking muscle fibre orientation using MRI has led to improved algorithms for tracking crossing neural fibres in the brain
  • Developed a useable 3D dynamic outcome measure for facial surgery to discriminate between normal and abnormal lip movement.

Current Projects

  • The effect of maternal alcohol consumption and smoking on a child’s facial morphology in the ALSPAC cohort – collaborators Universities of Oxford & Bristol.
  • Confirming distinctive facial features and their association with known candidate genes – collaborators Universities KU Leven & Bristol
  • Exploring the heritability of facial features in fathers and offspring using spatially-dense geometric morphometrics – collaborators Universities KU Leuven and Bristol
  • Determining the effect of known cleft SNPs on lip morphology in Finnish adults – collaborators Universities Oulu and Bristol
  • Oral-Facial Cleft Families: Phenotype and Genetics – Universities Pittsburgh and Bristol
  • Genetic and environmental contributions to facial morphological variation: a 3D population-based twin study – collaborators VISIGEN.
  • Developing facial classifiers with Computer Science, Cardiff.
  • The efficiency of the orthodontic service in Wales – evaluated 2 yearly.

Academic staff

Damian Farnell

Dr Damian Farnell

Lecturer in Medical Statistics

Email:
farnelld@caerdydd.ac.uk
Telephone:
+44 (0)29225 10618
Rebeca Playle

Dr Rebecca Playle

Senior Lecturer in Medical Statistics

Email:
playlera@caerdydd.ac.uk
Telephone:
+44 29207 44821
SR

Yr Athro Stephen Richmond

Head of Applied Clinical Research and Public Health

Email:
richmonds@caerdydd.ac.uk
Telephone:
+44 (0)29 2074 2451
Caryl Wilson

Caryl Wilson-Nagrani

Clinical Lecturer/Academic FTTA

Email:
wilsonce@caerdydd.ac.uk
Telephone:
+44 29207 46810

Dr Alexei Zhurov

Research Officer

Email:
zhurovai@caerdydd.ac.uk
Telephone:
+44 2920682161