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ECO Tables

 

   

Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECO's) Tables

The following tables list the ECO’s identified by the AUDITAC project as being potential areas to assess during an Inspection or Audit of a building, with the ultimate aim of reducing the energy consumption of the Air Conditioning System(s) within the building. These ECO’s were produced by Work Package 4 of the project.

ENVELOPE AND LOADS

CODE

ECO

BEMS
control

 

SOLAR GAIN REDUCTION / DAYLIGHT CONTROL IMPROVEMENT

E1.1

Install window film or tinted glass

 

 

E1.2

Install shutters, blinds, shades, screens or drapes

 

 

E1.3

Operate shutters, blinds, shades, screens or drapes

Y

 

E1.4

Replace internal blinds with external systems

 

 

E1.5

Close off balconies to make sunspace/greenhouse

 

 

E1.6

Modify vegetation to save energy

 

 

E1.7

Maintain windows and doors

 

 

 

 

 

 

VENTILATION / AIR MOVEMENT / AIR LEAKAGE IMPROVEMENT

E2.1

Generate possibility to close/open windows and doors to match climate

Y/N

 

E2.2

Ensure proper ventilation of attic spaces

Y

 

E2.3

Optimise air convective paths in shafts and stairwells

 

 

E2.4

Correct excessive envelope air leakage

 

 

E2.5

Roll shutter cases: insulate and seal air leaks

 

 

E2.6

Generate possibility of night time overventilation

 

 

E2.7

Add automatic door closing system between cooled and uncooled space

 

 

E2.8

Replace doors with improved design in order to reduce air leakage

 

 

 

 

 

 

ENVELOPE INSULATION IMPROVEMENT

E3.1

Upgrade insulation of flat roofs externally

 

 

E3.2

Upgrade attic insulation

 

 

E3.3

Add insulation to exterior walls by filling cavities

 

 

E3.4

Add insulation to exterior wall externally

 

 

E3.5

Add insulation to basement wall externally

 

 

E3.6

Upgrade insulation of ground floor above crawl space

 

 

E3.7

Locate and minimize the effect of thermal bridges

 

 

E3.8

Cover, insulate or convert unnecessary windows and doors

 

 

E3.9

Use double or triple glaze replacement

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTHER ACTIONS AIMED AT LOAD REDUCTION

E4.1

Reduce effective height of room

 

 

E4.2

Use appropriate colour exterior

 

 

E4.3

Employ evaporative cooling roof spray

 

 

E4.4

Provide means of reducing electrical peak demand through load shedding

Y

 

E4.5

Replace electrical equipment with Energy Star or low consumption types

 

 

E4.6

Replace lighting equipment with low consumption  types

 

 

E4.7

Modify lighting switches according to daylight contribution to different areas

 

 

E4.8

Introduce daylight / occupation sensors to operate lighting switches

Y

 

E4.9

Move equipments (copiers, printers, etc.) to non conditioned zones

 

 

 

PLANT

CODE

ECO

BEMS
control

BEMS AND CONTROLS / MISCELLANEOUS

P1.1

Install BEMS system

P1.2

Define best location for new electrical and cooling energy meters

 

 

P1.3

Modify controls in order to sequence heating and cooling

Y

P1.4

Modify control system in order to adjust internal set point values to external climatic conditions

Y

P1.5

Generate the possibility to adopt variable speed control strategy

Y

P1.6

Use class 1 electrical motors

P1.7

Reduce power consumption of auxiliary equipment

Y/N

COOLING EQUIPMENT / FREE COOLING

P2.1

Minimise adverse external influences (direct sunlight, air flow obstructions, etc.) on cooling tower and air cooled condenser (AHU, packaged, split, VRF systems)

Y

P2.2

Reduce compressor power or fit a smaller compressor

 

 

P2.3

Split the load among various chillers

 

 

P2.4

Repipe chillers or compressors in series or parallel to optimise circuiting

 

 

P2.5

Improve central chiller / refrigeration control

Y

P2.6

Replace or upgrade cooling equipment and heat pumps

 

 

P2.7

Consider feeding condenser with natural water sources

Y

P2.8

Apply evaporative cooling

Y

P2.9

Consider using ground water for cooling

Y

P2.10

Consider indirect free cooling using the existing cooling tower (free chilling)

Y

P2.11

Consider Indirect free cooling using outdoor air-to-water heat exchangers

Y

P2.12

Consider the possibility of using waste heat for absorption system

Y

P2.13

Consider cool storage applications (chilled water, water ice, other phase changing materials)

Y

P2.14

Consider using condenser rejection heat for air reheating

Y

AIR HANDLING / HEAT RECOVERY / AIR DISTRIBUTION

P3.1

Reduce motor size (fan power) when oversized

 

 

P3.2

Relocate motor out of air stream

 

 

P3.3

Use the best EUROVENT class of fans

 

 

P3.4

Use the best class of AHU

 

 

P3.5

Consider applying chemical de-humidification

P3.6

Apply variable flow rate fan control

 

 

P3.7

Consider conversion to VAV

P3.8

Exhaust (cool) conditioned air over condensers and through cooling towers

Y

P3.9

Introduce exhaust air heat recovery

Y

P3.10

Consider applying demand-controlled ventilation

Y

P3.11

Generate possibility to increase outdoor air flow rate (direct free cooling)

 

 

P3.12

Replace ducts when leaking

P3.13

Modify ductwork to reduce pressure losses

 

 

P3.14

Install back-draught or positive closure damper in ventilation exhaust system

Y

WATER HANDLING / WATER DISTRIBUTION

P4.1

Use the best class of pumps

 

 

P4.2

Modify pipework to reduce pressure losses

 

 

P4.3

Convert 3-pipe system to 2-pipe or 4-pipe system

 

 

P4.4

Install separate pumping to match zone requirements

Y

 

P4.5

Install variable volume pumping

Y

TERMINAL UNITS

P5.1

Consider applying chilled ceilings or chilled beams

 

 

P5.2

Consider introducing re-cool coils in zones with high cooling loads

 

 

P5.3

Increase heat exchanger surface areas

 

 

P5.4

Consider displacement ventilation

 

 

P5.5

Install localised HVAC system (in case of local discomfort)

Y

SYSTEM REPLACEMENT (IN SPECIFIC LIMITED ZONES)

P6.1

Consider water loop heat pump systems

Y

P6.2

Consider VRF (Variable Refrigerant Flow) systems

 

 

 

O&M

CODE

ECO

BEMS
control

FACILITY MANAGEMENT

O1.1

Generate instructions (“user guide”) targeted to the occupants

 

 

O1.2

Hire or appoint an energy manager

 

 

O1.3

Train building operators in energy – efficient O&M activities

 

 

O1.4

Introduce an energy – efficient objective as a clause in each O&M contract

 

 

O1.5

Introduce benchmarks, metering and tracking as a clause in each O&M contract, with indication of values in graphs and tables

 

 

O1.6

Update documentation on system / building and O&M procedures to maintain continuity and reduce troubleshooting costs

 

 

O1.7

Check if O&M staff are equipped with state – of – the – art diagnostic tools

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL HVAC SYSTEM

O2.1

Use an energy accounting system to locate savings opportunities and to track and measure the success of energy – efficient strategies

Y

O2.2

Shut off A/C equipments when not needed

Y

O2.3

Shut off auxiliaries when not required

Y/N

O2.4

Maintain proper system control set points

Y

O2.5

Adjust internal set point values to external climatic conditions

Y

 

O2.6

Implement pre-occupancy cycle

Y

O2.7

Sequence heating and cooling

Y

O2.8

Adopt variable speed control strategy

Y

COOLING EQUIPMENT

O3.1

Shut chiller plant off when not required

Y

O3.2

Sequence operation of multiple units

Y

O3.3

Operate chillers or compressors in series or parallel

 

 

O3.4

Track and optimize chillers operation schedule

Y

O3.5

Maintain proper starting frequency and running time of (reversible) chillers

Y

O3.6

Improve part load operation control

Y

O3.7

Maintain proper evaporating and condensing temperatures

Y

O3.8

Raise chilled water temperature and suction gas pressure

Y

O3.9

Lower condensing water temperature and pressures

Y

O3.10

Check sensor functioning and placement for (reversible) chillers

Y

 

O3.11

Maintain efficient defrosting (reversible chillers)

Y

O3.12

Maintain proper heat source/sink flow rates

Y

O3.13

Maintain functioning of (reversible) chiller expansion device

Y

O3.14

Check (reversible) chiller stand-by losses

Y

O3.15

Maintain full charge of refrigerant

Y/N

O3.16

Clean finned tube evaporator / condenser air side and straighten damaged fins

 

 

O3.17

Clean condenser tubes periodically

O3.18

Repair or upgrade insulation on chiller

 

 

O3.19

Clean and maintain cooling tower circuits and heat exchanger surfaces

 

 

O3.20

Apply indirect free cooling using the existing cooling tower (free chilling)

Y

 

FLUID (AIR AND WATER) HANDLING AND DISTRIBUTION

O4.1

Consider modifying the supply air temperature (all–air and air–and–water systems)

Y

O4.2

Perform night time overventilation

Y

O4.3

Shut off coil circulators when not required

Y

O4.4

Replace mixing dampers

O4.5

Adjust fan belts (AHU, packaged systems)

 

 

O4.6

Eliminate air leaks (AHU, packaged systems)

 

 

O4.7

Increase outdoor air flow rate (direct free cooling)

Y

 

O4.8

Adjust/balance ventilation system

Y

O4.9

Reduce air flow rate to actual needs

Y/N

O4.10

Check maintenance protocol in order to reduce pressure losses

 

 

O4.11

Reduce air leakage in ducts

 

 

O4.12

Clean fan blades

O4.13

Maintain drives

O4.14

Clean or replace filters regularly

 

 

O4.15

Repair/upgrade duct, pipe and tank insulation

 

 

O4.16

Consider the possibility to increase the water outlet – inlet temperature difference and reduce the flow rate for pumping power reduction

 

 

O4.17

Balance hydronic distribution system

Y

O4.18

Bleed air from hydronic distribution system

Y

O4.19

Switch off circulation pumps when not required

Y

O4.20

Maintain proper water level in expansion tank

Y

O4.21

Repair water leaks

O4.22

Reduce water flow rates to actual needs

Y/N

 

 

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