The Green Poster of Fredrikstad as
a Tool for the Municipality Plan
case study is also available in pdf format.
Fredrikstad a city in the south of Norway is chosen to show how The green
poster can be used in the municipality plan as a tool to secure the green
structure of the urban area in a more sustainable way. As described in
chapter xx. The green poster is not a plan but an evaluation of certain
values and functions of the urban green areas.
During the 1990-ties five Norwegian
cities, among them Fredrikstad joined The environmental friendly cities
project which was organized by the Ministry of Environment. The main objective
of the project was to develop the cities in a more sustainable direction
according to the report of the Brundtland commission. In each city there
were established groups focusing on: 1) Transport system and spatial planning,
2) Local development 3) City centre development 4) Cultural heritage 5)
Waste treatment and 6) Green structure planning.
In the last years the green
structure work in Fredrikstad has been developed further due to a new
project called Arealis conducted by the Central survey agency of Norway.
The main objective in the Arealis project was to establish and evaluate
GIS standards for the urban green structure. Arealis is a database for
planning, and the goal is to have relevant data available for all Norwegian
municipalities. The figure below illustrates the main data structure of
The green poster of Fredrikstad which also has been suggested as a national
GIS standard for the urban green structure.
the municipality of Fredrikstad The green poster was used in the 1997
plan as well as in the latest plan decided on in 2002. The written document
of 2002 plan stresses the importance of the Green poster as a premise
on the long-term spatial planning of Fredrikstad. It also is underlined
that if a plan proposal conflicts The green poster this should clearly
be mentioned to let the politicians and the public be aware of the consequences
of the proposal. The green poster is in other words even a tool for the
plans at the detailed level and is available at the website of the municipality.
In the environmentally friendly
cities programme five green structure indicators were developed and tested
• The amount of green areas within the built up zone
• The content and quality of the green structure
• The amount of water, rivers, pounds etc.
• The amount of recreational areas
• The amount of children’s playgrounds and local parks
Comparing the last municipality
plan of Fredrikstad with previous plans, it is evident that the green
structure is taken more in to consideration in the 2002 plan. Certainly
some green areas have been changed in the latest plan and will be built
on in the future. However it seems as the Green poster has formed a better
basis for the solution on densification avoiding the most valuable green
areas. The main tendency is that there is more green space shown in the
2002 plan and that the areas are more detailed described. This seems to
be due to more knowledge about the values and functions of the green areas
of the city and more knowledge about the need for green space established
through the Green poster.
The municipality plan of
Fredrikstad 2002, a detail
The amount of green areas within the built up zone: Data available
from the basic GIS survey of the land cover is used to see changes over
time. The benchmark data is the previous survey.
The content and quality of the green structure: Data available
on special qualities of the green structure from the basic GIS survey
of the land cover is used to see the variety of the structure and changes
over time. The benchmark data is the previous survey.
The amount of water, rivers, pounds etc: Data available from
the basic GIS survey is used to see changes over time. The benchmark data
is the previous
The amount of recreational areas: None of the inhabitants shall
have more than 500 meters to reach a recreational area of less than 0,2
haa without crossing a road with heavy traffic
The amount of children’s playgrounds and local parks: None
of the inhabitants shall have more than 200 meters to reach a playground
or park l of less than 5000 m2 without crossing a road with heavy traffic
This kind of GIS based data
can also be used to compare the situation in different cities. The figure
shows the situation I Fredrikstad (below) compared to the situation in
Bergen (in the middle) and Tromsø (above).
All the time since 1992 White papers on spatial planning policy of Norway
focused on densification within the urban fabric to avoid urban sprawl
and reduce CO2. Obviously this policy is a threat to the green space of
the cities. That is why the government on the other hand also stresses
the importance of the green areas for health and life quality. This was
also an important part of the environmentally friendly cities project
which Fredrikstad joined.
As demonstrated above The green poster has been a useful tool in the municipality
plan. The most important lessons learnt from the Fredrikstad case are
• The importance of cross sectorial work and public participation
• To implement The green poster at the municipality level it is
necessary to handle the organisational aspects of the accomplishment.
Especially there is a need for understanding at the top level of the organisation.
• There is a need for a maintenance system of the database
• There is a need to educate people to use The green poster
Many Norwegian cities have developed Green posters during the last 10
– 15 years. The most important reason for this seems to be that
the green poster system helps the planners to work in a structured way
to collect the data. They are even forced to describe the criteria for
the evaluations which mean that criteria are transparent to everybody
joining the planning process.
The databases concerning land
survey and city planning are now increasing all over Europe. Therefore,
the Green Poster system can be established in any city, and become a useful
evaluation tool for town and city planning.
The transferability of The green poster has mainly to do with the structure
and the process of making it. The details concerning functions and values
will differ so much in different countries and cultures and will often
be of less importance to transfer. Many municipalities in Norway as well
as in other countries have developed similar tools. Since most of the
municipalities today use GIS-systems The green poster should be quite
easy to transfer. In Norway the development of The green poster has been
a part of different governmental projects and there are some handbooks
and guidelines presenting the structure and process of making it.
OF IMPACT ON SUSTAINABILITY
The table describes how this special tool has influenced the
||Willingness to pay
||Safety, health, amenity
1. Taking care of green areas within the urban fabric might lead to more
emissions due to urban sprawl, but The green poster shows the most important
green space in an efficient way
2. Willingness to pay has not been a part of this study
Kine Halvorsen Thorén
Dep. Of landscape architecture and spatial planning
The Agricultural university of Norway
Boks 5029. 1432 Aas Norway
Direktoratet for naturforvaltning, 2003. ”Grønn by - arealplanlegging
og grønnstruktur.Håndbok 23 – 2003 (Handbook: The green
structure and green
poster in the municipality planning process) http://www.dirnat.no/wbch3.exe?ce=17571
Erik Engelien og Margrete Steinnes
”Tilgang til friluftsområder- metode og resultater 2002”
(The supply of recreational areas - methods and results 2002) Statistics
Norway 2003/1 SFT
Å beskrive miljøtilstand og bærekraftig utvikling i
byer og tettsteder" (About indicators for sustainability) SFT-brosjyre
Thorén A-K. Halvorsen 2000 "The green poster": a method
to evaluate the sustainability of the urban green structure “Environmental
impact assessment review, vol 20, no3 June 2000 [359-371]